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[xmca] Online role-play research

      Mark rightfully constrasted the LARP research from our research on
online role-play.

        While our research on online role-play is certainly quite different
from the more open-ended fantasy role-play, I want to note that rather than
the traditional notions of competitive debate/argument, we base our work on
alternative models of ³collaborative argument² (Andriessen, Baker, &
Suthers, 2003; Clark & Sampson, 2008; Marttunen &  Laurinen, 2007). as well
as ³pragmatic-dialectic models (van Eemeren, 2009) that involves exchange
claims and negotiating differences between claims in "constructive
controversy" (Johnson & Johnson, 2009) to achieve the larger goal of
mutually solving problems for achieving some resolution.

    We also draw on research on use of ³collaborative reasoning² at the
elementary grade level in which the teacher poses open-ended, ³big
questions² regarding larger issues portrayed in a text, as well as asking
students for reasons for their positions, modeling collaborative-reasoning
strategies, and summarizing key differences in students¹ positions, finds
that acquiring this tool enhances students ability to analyze and formulate
arguments (Reznitskaya, et al., 2007; 2009).

    And we draw on Flower, Long, & Higgins¹s (2000) ³rival hypothesis
thinking² that involves through entertaining and challenging rival
hypotheses through active exchange of claims and challenges to those claims
in service learning or community development activities.
    One interesting aspect of this research is how participants employ
social genres as shared, prototypical social practices designed to achieve
certain rhetorical ³uptakes² (Bazerman, 1994; Nystand, 1986; Swales, 1999)
that serve to mediate argumentative interaction or construct ethos.  As
Russell (2009) notes, ³genres allow subjects to recognize the activity and
the appropriate actions in the presence of certain constellations of
tools?marks on surfaces and other material phenomena.  And genres make it
possible to act with others over time in more or less but never entirely
predictable ways, individually, collectively, and institutionally² (p. 43).
    To study participants¹ construction of ethos, we draw on discourse
analysis to examine roles¹ ³double-voicing² of discourses as a ³hybrid
discourse practice²?Kamberelis (2001, pp. 120-121) in which ³external
authoritative² discourses intermix with more familiar, ³internally
persuasive² discourses (Bakhtin, 1981) to create power hierarchies in the
exchanges between appeals to external authority (Beach & Doerr-Stevens, in
press).  Double-voicing these completing, hybrid discourses led students to
recognition of the tensions/contradictions between constituting competing
perspectives on an issue.  And, we draw on research on ³presence² (Bracken &
Skalski, 2010)?the sense that one is experience an actual, ³lived,²
engagement in a role or activity in an online world.
    And we draw on the very interested work by Leema Kuhn Berland (UT,
Austin) in science education on differences between the argument activity
goals versus classroom instructional goals (Berland & Reiser, 2009).  It's
often the case that there are tensions between a teachers' goal in a
discussion (to assess students or achieve some shared understanding) versus
the students/activity goals of engaging in arguments that might lead to some
actual, institutional change, as in our study, unblocking the blocked
websites.  It is important that students perceive the goals of constructing
convincing argument for audiences as consistent with the goals for
participating in the particular social networking classroom activity.  While
the goal of classroom discussions are typically based on the norms of
demonstrating knowledge or answering questions for familiar teacher and peer
audiences, online role-play involves operating according to a different set
of norms driven by the goal of convincing a range of different, often less
familiar virtual and actual audiences.
Beach, R., & Doerr-Stevens, C.  (in press).  Using social networking for
online role-plays to develop students¹ argumentative strategies.  Journal of
Educational Computing Learning.
Berland, L. K., & Reiser, B. J. (2009). Making sense of argumentation and
explanation.  Science Education, 93(1), 26-55.
Bracken, C. C., & Skalski, P. D. (Eds.).  (2010).  Immersed in media:
Telepresence in everyday life.  New York: Routledge.
Chandrasegaran, A., & Kong, K. M. C.  (2007).  Stance-taking and
stance-support in students¹ online forum discussion.  Linguistics &
Education, 17(4), 374-390.
Clark, D. B., & Sampson, V. (2008). Assessing dialogic argumentation in
online environments to relate structure, grounds, and conceptual quality.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(3), 293­321.
Flower, L. (2008). Community literacy and the rhetoric of public engagement.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Flower, L., Long, E., & Higgens, L. (2000).  Learning to rival: A literate
practice for intercultural inquiry.  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T.  (2009).  Energizing learning: The
instructional power of conflict. Educational Researcher, 38, 37 - 51.
Kamberelis, G. (2001). Producing heteroglossic classroom (micro)cultures
through hybrid discourse practice. Linguistics and Education, 12(1), 85-125.
Laurinen, L. I., & Marttunen, M. J.  (2007). Written arguments and
collaborative speech acts in practicing the argumentative power of language
through chat debates.  Computers and Composition, 24, 230­246.
Marttunen, M. &  Laurinen, L.  (2007).  Collaborative learning through chat
discussions and argument diagrams in secondary school.  Journal of Research
on Technology in Education
Reznitskaya, A., Anderson, R. C., McNurlen, B., Nguyen-Jahiel, K.,
Archodidou, A., & Kim, S. (2001). Influence of oral discussion on written
argument. Discourse Processes, 32(2), 155-175.
Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L-J., Clark, A-M., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Anderson,
R. R., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2009).  Collaborative reasoning: a dialogic
approach to group discussions.  Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1),
Russell, D. R. (2009).  Activity theory in written communication research.
In A.    
Sannino, H. Daniels, & K.D. Gutierrez (Eds.). Learning and expanding with
activity theory (pp. 40-52).  New York: Cambridge University Press.
Russell, D., & Yanez, A.  (2003).  ³Big picture people rarely become
historians²: Genre 
systems and the contradictions of general education. . In C. Bazerman & D.
Russell (Eds.), Writing selves, writing societies: Research from activity
perspectives (pp. 331-362).  Fort Collins, CO: WAV Clearinghouse and Mind,
Culture, and Activity
van Eemeren, F. H.  (Ed.).  (2009). Examining argumentation in
context: Fifteen studies on strategic maneuvering. Philadephia:
John Benjamins.
van Eemeren, F. H. (2010).  Strategic maneuvering in argumentative
discourse: Extending the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation.
Philadephia: John Benjamins.

On 7/20/10 12:51 PM, "Richard Beach" <rbeach@umn.edu> wrote:

> Here's a discussion of the use of online role-play on a Ning (can also be
> done on blogs) to foster argumentative writing about issues leading to
> changes in status quo practices:
> Beach, R., & Doerr-Stevens, C.  (2009).  Learning Argument Practices Through
> Online Role-Play: Toward a Rhetoric of Significance and Transformation.
> Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(6)
> http://tinyurl.com/29pl58c
> Central to fostering change is surfacing tensions and contradictions through
> the role-play that lead students to be motivated to want to push for making
> changes.  
> On 7/20/10 5:19 AM, "Wagner Schmit" <mcfion@gmail.com> wrote:
>> A list of book about Live Action Role Play (larp) in Nordic countries
>>    - Morten Gade, Line Thorup & Mikkel Sander (eds.): *As Larp Grows Up*.
>>    Knudepunkt 2003. ISBN
>> 87-989377-0-7<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/8798937707>.
>>    http://www.laivforum.dk/kp03_book/
>>    - Markus Montola & Jaakko Stenros (eds.): *Beyond Role and Play*.
>>    Solmukohta 2004. ISBN
>> 952-91-6842-X<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/952916842X>.
>>    http://www.ropecon.fi/brap/
>>    - Petter Bøckman & Ragnhild Hutchison (eds.): *Dissecting Larp*.
>>    Knutepunkt 2005. ISBN
>> nt)
>> ine)
>>    http://knutepunkt.laiv.org/kp05/
>>    - Thorbiörn Fritzon & Tobias Wrigstad (eds.) : *Role, Play, Art*.
>>    Knutpunkt 2006. ISBN
>> 91-631-8853-8<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9163188538>.
>>    http://jeepen.org/kpbook/
>>    - Jesper Donnis, Morten Gade & Line Thorup (eds.): *Lifelike*. Knudepunkt
>>    2007. ISBN 
>> 15>.
>>    http://www.liveforum.dk/kp07book/
>>    - Jaakko Stenros & Markus Montola (eds.): *Playground Worlds*. Solmukohta
>>    2008. ISBN 
>> 97>(print)
>> 03>(pdf)
>>    http://www.ropecon.fi/pw/
>>    - Matthijs Holter, Eirik Fatland & Even Tømte (eds.): *Larp, the Universe
>>    and Everything*. Knutepunkt 2009. ISBN
>> 20>
>>    http://knutepunkt.laiv.org/2009/book/
>>    - Larsson, Elge (ed.): *Playing Reality*. Knutpunkt 2010 | Interacting
>> dlink=1>.
>>    ISBN 
>> 13>(print)
>> 20>(pdf)
>> ngarts.org/pdf/Playing%20Reality%20%282010%29.pdf>
>> There are some articles about education in some of them, and in the 2008 and
>> 2009 books there are articles about a school that uses larp as an
>> educational methodology
>> Wagner
>> On Tue, Jul 20, 2010 at 12:44 AM, mike cole <lchcmike@gmail.com> wrote:
>>> This story from the *NY Times* knocked my socks off for the similarity of
>>> underlying intuitions of these play-themed camps and the playworld's work
>>> of
>>> many members on XMCA. Check it out.
>>> mike
>>> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
>>> Date: Mon, Jul 19, 2010 at 5:50 PM
>>> Subject: NYTimes.com: At Camp, Make-Believe Worlds Spring Off Page
>>>        [image: The New York Times] <http://www.nytimes.com/> [image:
>>> E-mail
>>> This] <
>>> ying_06.18&goto=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Efoxsearchlight%2Ecom%2Fcyrus
>>> *This page was sent to you by: * mcole@ucsd.edu
>>>  * N.Y. / REGION *   | July 17, 2010
>>>  * At Camp, Make-Believe Worlds Spring Off Page
>>> <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/17/nyregion/17camp.html?emc=eta1> *
>>>  Role-playing literary camps, like Camp Half-Blood in Brooklyn, are
>>> sprouting up around the nation.
>>>           Advertisement
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>>> C. Reilly, Jonah Hill, and Marisa Tomei.
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>>> <
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