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Re: [xmca] Emotions

Social, but no culture?
Context but no culture?
hmmmmm. How is that possible?
(have not changed sub line)

On Wed, Jul 7, 2010 at 7:16 PM, Martin Packer <packer@duq.edu> wrote:

> ...and here is Ekman writing on the universality of emotional expression,
> in a paper title Universality of Emotional Expression? A Personal History of
> the Dispute. He is commenting on a criticism of his work by Margaret Mead:
> "Perhaps Mead thought I was claiming that emotions operate
> like instincts, uninfluenced by social experience. That was not
> my position; finding universals in expressions does not mean that
> expressions are not socially influenced. Our findings on how
> socially learned display rules produced a cultural difference in
> the public behavior of Japanese and Americans should have made
> that clear.... I had emphasized that
> facial expressions '... are embedded in a context; they may be
> elicited by different stimuli, be operated upon by different display
> rules, be blended with other affects, and be followed by different
> behavioral consequences. We do not mean to belittle these factors;
> in actuality we want to focus attention on these factors as
> the major sources of cultural differences in affect displays.'...
> Social experience influences
> attitudes about emotions, creates display and feeling rules,
> develops and tunes the particular occasions which will most
> rapidly call forth an emotion. [However] I believe that much of the initial
> emotion-specific
> physiological activity in the first few milliseconds of an emotional
> experience is also not penetrable by social experience"
> Martin
> p.s. I changed the subject line
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