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[xmca] an off-topic question

This question doesn't pertain to any current thread, although it does pertain to certain institutionalized discourses and activity-systems. (It's hard to be completely off-topic with this list!)

I thought of sending it to certain people who I thought might have answers, but then I thought it's possible that there would be some wider interest.

My question: What's the difference between "kagaku" and "rika," two Japanese words that are both translated into English as "science"?
For more elaboration of the question, see

I'd be interested in anything on this -- including how students and non-educators and non-scientists understand these terms.

This is relevant as an example bearing on the question of relationships between academic disciplines and school subjects. It also has more particular relevance to the question of teaching evolution in the public schools. I tried to keep the question more naive on the blog so as not to influence responses I might get.

Please feel free to respond by leaving a comment on the blog post, or responding to me off-list via email, or replying here on xmca if others would be interested.

Thanks in advance (I recall that "thanks in advance" was itself a topic generating considerable response here once.).

Tony Whitson
UD School of Education
NEWARK  DE  19716


"those who fail to reread
 are obliged to read the same story everywhere"
                  -- Roland Barthes, S/Z (1970)
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