this is only a partial response, phil, but it speaks to a recurrent
You write, in small part:
A learner may come to a
place for language learning with the socially-derived motive of
improving her/his prospects of promotion in the local workplace.
However, it may be revealed that the learner, in fact, had, or has
developed "private motives" in the language class that reflect more
In Leontiev's framework, aren't what you call private MOTIVES private
GOALS? And isn't the corresponding level of analysis that of goal
The answer to this may be NO. But I routinely find myself confused about
the issue of goal/motive action/activity. And, concurrently, believe that
many goals may be pursued within a common activity and even, perhaps, that
a given activity might be said to fufill multiple MOTIVES. For sure a
given activity can fufill multiple goals.
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