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[xmca] Fwd: TCRecord: Media Comparison Studies: Problems and Possibilities

The lead article here may be of interest to some of you.
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From: Teachers College Record <noreply@tcrecord.org>
Date: Tue, Sep 15, 2009 at 6:42 AM
Subject: TCRecord: Media Comparison Studies: Problems and Possibilities
To: mcole@ucsd.edu

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    Freely-Available This Week
 Media Comparison Studies: Problems and Possibilities
by Bryan R. Warnick & Nicholas C. Burbules
 This article analyzes some of the conceptual problems in the debate
concerning media comparison studies. It examines the process of making a
comparison, explores the concepts of "media" and "methods," and suggests
some alternative visions of media studies in education.

 What Higher Education Has to Say About the Transition to
by Sara Goldrick-Rab
 This analytical review of the major findings of research on the transition
to college emphasizes those studies conducted by higher education
researchers. The specific areas covered are college preparation, college
access, persistence, and college outcomes. Also discussed are methodological
and conceptual shortcomings of this body of work, and how further research
might be improved.

 ADHD, Medication, and Academic Achievement among Elementary School
Students: An Important Component of Long-Term Success in School and in
by Richard M. Scheffler & Stephen P. Hinshaw
In this article, the authors argue for an understanding of
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder that includes lifting the stigma of
both diagnosis and of treatment programs that include psychostimulant
  Healthy Obsession: Implications of This Critical Concept for Effective
Weight Control for Educators Hoping to Help Their Overweight
by Daniel S. Kirschenbaum
A healthy obsession is a preoccupation of the planning and execution of
target behaviors to reach a healthy goal. This paper describes the rationale
for this critical concept in effective weight control and the implications
of understanding it for educators who wish to help their overweight students
live healthier and happier lives.

 Book Reviews
 School Principal: Managing in
 by Dan C. Lortie
reviewed by Thomas L. Good
 Teaching for Intellectual and Emotional Learning (TIEL): A Model for
Creating Powerful
 by Christy Folsom
reviewed by Maurice J. Elias
 Between Speaking and Silence: A Study of Quiet
 by Mary M. Reda
reviewed by Stephanie Burdick-Shepherd
  Call for Proposals - NSSE Yearbooks to Join
by Gary Natriello
The editors of TCR announce a call for proposals for future volumes of the
NSSE Yearbooks.

For Subscribers
 Goals, Grades, Fears, and Peers. Introductory Essay for Special Issues on
the Effects of School and Classroom Racial and SES Composition on
Educational Outcomes <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15686>
by Roslyn Arlin Mickelson
 In this essay, Roslyn Arlin Mickelson introduces the set of three special
issues about the effects of school and classroom composition on educational
outcomes. The 22 articles in the set report new research on the relationship
of racial and socioeconomic composition to math and science outcomes (Vol.
112, No. 4); to verbal achievement, discipline, and high school graduation
(Vol. 112, No. 5); and to intergroup relations and adult life course
trajectories (Vol. 112, No. 6). She suggests why the findings have
implications for public policy and educational practice.

 Increasing Racial Isolation and Test Score Gaps in Mathematics: A 30-Year
Perspective <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15657>
by Mark Berends & Roberto V. Penaloza
 We analyze nationally representative data from 1972, 1982, 1992, and 2004,
examining the mathematics achievement of four high school senior cohorts,
and several school and family background characteristics. We examine how
changes in these measures (in terms of means and coefficients) relate to the
black-white and Latino-white test score gaps and to changes in school
minority composition

 School Composition and Contextual Effects on Student
by J. Douglas Willms
 Findings from several international studies have shown that in every
country, there is a significant relationship between literacy skills and
socioeconomic status. This relationship, called a socioeconomic gradient or
"learning bar," is a useful policy device because it provides a framework
that emphasizes levels of schooling outcomes and the equality of outcomes
among advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Research has also shown that
schools differ considerably in their student outcomes, even after taking
account of students' ability and family background. The context or learning
environment of a school or classroom is an important determinant of the rate
at which children learn. The academic literature has traditionally used
school composition, particularly the mean socioeconomic status (SES) of the
school, as a proxy for context. This article uses data from the OECD
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to show that school
composition is correlated with seve ral aspects of school and classroom
context and that many of these contextual factors are associated with
students' science literacy. School composition is also associated with the
extent to which school systems are segregated "horizontally," based on the
distribution among schools of students from differing SES backgrounds, or
"vertically," due mainly to mechanisms that select students into different
types of schools. The findings have implications for educational policy that
concern the differential allocation of human and material resources, the
stratification of students into different types of schools and school
programs, and the segregation of students from different family backgrounds.

 Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity
and Stratification <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15659>
by Chandra Muller, Catherine Riegle-Crumb, Kathryn S. Schiller, Lindsey
Wilkinson & Kenneth A. Frank
 This article examines the mathematics course-taking of White, African
American, and Latino students in racially diverse schools and the effects of
different opportunity structures in those schools on college preparation and
college-going using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement
Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add

 End-of-High-School Mathematics Attainment: How Did Students Get
by Xiaoxia A. Newton
 This study examines how high school graduates got to where they were in
terms of mathematics attainment from a social-psychological perspective. The
study uses a three-level longitudinal and multilevel modeling framework to
address the key research questions.

 School Composition and Context Factors That Moderate and Predict 10th-Grade
Science Proficiency <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15661>
by William F. Tate IV & Mark C. Hogrebe
 The percentages of free/reduced price lunch students and minority students
are important factors in predicting science proficiency in high school and
also moderate relationships by interacting with school composition factors.
This study suggests that teacher quality in high poverty, majority-minority
school settings remains an important policy target for reform and

 Does the SES of the School Matter? An Examination of Socioeconomic Status
and Student Achievement Using PISA
by Laura B. Perry & Andrew McConney
 This study examines the relationships among student socioeconomic status
(SES), school SES, and academic achievement using data from the 2003
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Australia. The
study finds that increases in the mean SES of the school are associated with
increases in a student's academic achievement and that this relationship is
similar for all students regardless of their individual SES. The article
concludes with a discussion of policy implications and possible strategies
for mitigating the influence of school socioeconomic composition on student

 How Do School Peers Influence Student Educational Outcomes? Theory and
Evidence From Economics and Other Social
by Douglas N. Harris
 This study describes and compares theories from multiple disciplines about
how peers (classmates) influence one another. It then compares the empirical
predictions of the theories with empirical evidence about peer influences on
student achievement, draws tentative conclusions about which theories are
most consistent with the evidence, and proposes a new hybrid theory,
group-based contagion, that seems most consistent with the evidence.

 Schools and Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis of Coleman's Equality of
Educational Opportunity
by Geoffrey Borman & Maritza Dowling
 Four decades after the pathbreaking Coleman report, researchers are still
working to address its primary message: that school social composition and
resources are not important for understanding and addressing educational
inequality. Using the original Equality of Educational Opportunity data,
this study applied a two-level hierarchical linear model to partition the
variation in ninth-grade students' verbal achievement into its within- and
between-school components and to measure the associations among school-level
social composition, resources, teacher characteristics, and peer
characteristics and achievement. We estimated that 40% of the achievement
variance was between schools, whereas Coleman and colleagues had originally
estimated that only 8.5%-18% lay between schools. Explanatory analyses
suggested that the racial/ethnic and social class composition of a student's
school was over 1 3/4 times more important than a student's individual
race/ethnicity or social class for understanding educational outcomes.
Further, within-school Black-White achievement gaps and social class
differences were explained in part by curricular differentiation and
teachers' preferences toward middle-class students. These findings are
contrasted with those from a set of traditional ordinary least squares
regression models and the past conclusions drawn from the Coleman report.

 A Crisis of Authority in Predominantly Black
by Sean Kelly
 The author investigates the behavioral climate and teachers' use of
developmental instruction in predominantly black schools in three databases.

 ADHD-Related School Compositional Effects: An
by Susan Stone, Timothy T. Brown & Stephen P. Hinshaw
 In this paper children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
provide a test case through which to investigate psychosocial school
compositional effects.

 An Organizational Perspective on the Origins of Instructional Segregation:
School Composition and Use of Within-Class Ability Grouping in American
Kindergartens <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15670>
by Anthony Buttaro, Jr., Sophia Catsambis, Lynn M. Mulkey & Lala Carr
 This investigation is sparked by research findings on secondary education
showing school segregation to be closely associated with homogeneous
grouping practices, such as tracking and between-class ability grouping. We
conduct secondary analyses of national data from the Early Childhood
Longitudinal Study -Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to investigate the degree
to which the racial and ethnic composition of schools is associated with use
of ability grouping practices as early as kindergarten.

 Family, Neighborhood, and School Settings Across Seasons: When Do
Socioeconomic Context and Racial Composition Matter for the Reading
Achievement Growth of Young
by Geoffrey Borman & James G. Benson
 This quantitative study employs a seasonal perspective to assess the
importance of neighborhood and school contexts for reading achievement as of
school entry and through the first 2 years of elementary school.

 Disentangling School- and Student-Level Effects of Desegregation and
Resegregation on the Dropout Problem in Urban High Schools: Evidence From
the Cleveland Municipal School District,
by Argun Saatcioglu
 This article examines the effects of segregation, desegregation, and
resegregation on minority and White dropout rates in urban high schools.
Relying on multilevel techniques, it analyzes school- and student-level
outcomes simultaneously. The results, based on longitudinal data from
Cleveland, suggest that desegregated high schools aggravated dropout
tendencies to a much lesser extent than did segregated ones, although the
eventual rates at the student level changed only modestly, largely because
of the worsening nonschool problems. Desegregation was particularly
beneficial for high schools serving cohorts that were exposed to integration
starting in first grade. Resegregation nullified many of the school-level
benefits of desegregation. The overall results were similar for minorities
and Whites.

 Does Moving to Better Neighborhoods Lead to Better Schooling Opportunities?
Parental School Choice in an Experimental Housing Voucher
by Stefanie DeLuca & Peter Rosenblatt
 This article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between housing
and school opportunities for low-income families given the chance to move to
less poor communities through the federal Moving to Opportunity (MTO)
housing voucher experiment. Quantitative analyses suggest that new housing
opportunities did not generally translate into a larger increase in school
quality because families did not secure housing in communities with the
highest-performing schools. Qualitative findings explore how structural
constraints and parenting practices interact to affect where children attend

 International Evidence on Ability Grouping With Curriculum Differentiation
and the Achievement Gap in Secondary
by Janet Ward Schofield
 This article reviews international research on the connection between
various forms of ability grouping with curriculum differentiation and the
achievement gap. It concludes that such practices are likely to increase the
gap between initially high- and low-achieving students, as well as between
those from more and less privileged social backgrounds.

 Race and Cultural Flexibility among Students in Different Multiracial
Schools <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15688>
by Prudence L. Carter
 This article examines the difference in cultural flexibility, or the
propensity to move across different cultural and social peer groups and
environments, between black and white students enrolled in either
majority-minority or majority-white schools. Results show associations among
race, self-esteem, academic and extracurricular placement, and cultural
flexibility by school context.

 Social Reproduction of Inequality: The Racial Composition of Feeder Schools
to the University of
by Robert Teranishi & Tara L. Parker
 This study responds to a critical need for research that provides an
evidentiary basis for policy, law, and social change. The premise for the
current study is to provide new perspectives for understanding problems in
California that policy and practices can target to improve educational
opportunities and outcomes in the state. Whereas previous studies have been
interested in the factors associated with attending either the University of
California as a whole or a specific campus within the UC system, this study
takes one step further by examining the extent to which both the UC system
and individual UC campuses enroll first-time freshman from high schools that
vary by racial composition.

 Learning Apart, Living Apart: How the Racial and Ethnic Segregation of
Schools and Colleges Perpetuates Residential
by Pat Rubio Goldsmith
 Despite a powerful civil rights movement and legislation barring
discrimination in housing markets, residential neighborhoods remain racially
segregated. To a considerable extent, residential segregation is perpetuated
across generations: people who grow up in segregated neighborhoods tend to
also live in them as adults. I examine whether segregation in schools and
colleges contributes to the intergenerational transmission of residential
locations in terms of racial composition.

 Social Isolation and Social Cohesion: The Effects of K-12 Neighborhood and
School Segregation on Intergroup
by Jomills Henry Braddock II & Amaryllis Del Carmen Gonzalez
 This study examines the relationship between social cohesion and social
isolation at the institutional level in schools and neighborhoods using data
from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen.

 Long-Term Correlates of High School Racial Composition: Perpetuation Theory
Reexamined <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15693>
by Elizabeth Stearns
 This article applies perpetuation theory to the study of workplace racial
isolation. Findings suggest that exposure to other racial groups in high
school for African American and White students reduces their racial
isolation in the workplace in the years following high school.

 Children of Immigrants and Educational Expectations: The Roles of School
Composition <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15694>
by Ryan Wells
 This article explores the effect that the proportion of children of
immigrants in a school has on all students' expectations and examines the
differential effects of school composition on the expectations of children
of immigrants as compared with nonimmigrants.

 After Seattle: Social Science Research and Narrowly Tailored School
Desegregation Plans <http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15696>
by David J. Armor & Stephanie Duck O'Neill
 The article discusses Justice Kennedy's unique views in the Seattle school
desegregation decision and tries to clarify the relationship between social
science evidence on desegregation benefits and the requirements of narrowly
tailored remedies.

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