What follows is my own understanding of origins of emotions. Its a very complex
story which is never, so far as I know, discussed in sufficient detail and subtlety
d fear differentiate from discontent at about 4 months and 6 months, respectively (Lewis 1998).
mple, the mothers interviewed in one study reported that their infants were expressing several emotions by the age of 1 month, including joy, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and interest (Johnson et al., 1982).
. To a somewhat lesser extent, they also agreed on which expressions showed anger, disgust, and contempt.
[Insert Figure 4.18 about here; From 4e, Fig. 4.16, p. 143]
s of actors posing the different expressions, the adults from different cultures also agreed on the photographs that represented happiness, sadness, anger, and disgust. Nontheless, culture-specific experience must play some role in judging emotional expressions because people are more accurate in judging emotions displayed by members of their own culture group (Elfenbein and Ambady 2003)
and ages (Witherington, Campos et al. 2002).
interaction among the higher brain centers. None of these aspects of emotion are present at birth. Consequently, some of the psychological and biological processes that link facial expressions of newborns to emotions may differ from those reflected by the same facial expressions in older infants, children, and adults.
fants act, think, communicate, and relate to others in new ways. Thus, in the chapters ahead, we will frequently find ourselves considering the development of emotions in connection with the development of the intellectual, social, and physical aspects of development.
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