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[Xmca-l] Re: From Eugene Matusov -- FW: EDUC855 Curricular Map: Sociocultural Theories in Education

You betcha! Enjoy the seminar!

> On Aug 13, 2016, at 6:26 PM, Eugene Matusov <ematusov@udel.edu> wrote:
> Thanks A LOT, Henry! I added this book to the list. Very good addition!
> Eugene
> -----Original Message-----
> From: HENRY SHONERD [mailto:hshonerd@gmail.com]
> Sent: Saturday, August 13, 2016 6:00 PM
> To: eXtended Mind, Culture, Activity <xmca-l@mailman.ucsd.edu>
> Cc: xmca-l@ucsd.edu; Eugene Matusov <ematusov@udel.edu>
> Subject: Re: [Xmca-l] From Eugene Matusov -- FW: EDUC855 Curricular Map:
> Sociocultural Theories in Education
> Eugene,
> Wow!
> I feel silly adding anything to your list, but I just thought that you could
> add one more thing to your readings for Topic 27 (Ways of talking, writing,
> and reading) and that would be Shirley Brice Heath’s Ways of Knowing, a rich
> ethnographic approach to the uses of literacy in three communities.
> Henry
>> On Aug 12, 2016, at 3:33 PM, Ana Marjanovic-Shane <anamshane@gmail.com>
>> wrote:
>> Dear XMCAers–
>> Thanks A LOT to many of you who sent your syllabi and suggestions in
>> response to Ana’s request for the “Sociocultural Theories in Education”
>> course. I do not have the access to XMCA so I asked Ana to ask you.
>> I have created a draft of the Curricular Map for my doctoral fall seminar,
>> EDUC855 “Sociocultural Theories in Education” – 30 topics (please, see
>> below). My EDUC855 grad students will have a chance to choose topics that
>> they want to study from the Curricular Map and to add new topics of their
>> interest that may be relevant to the class. For each topic, I created it’s
>> label, descriptive teaser and readings. The order if the topics is not
>> important because my students will select a topic they will want to study
>> for a next class. In developing the topics, I focus on sociocultural
>> theories, approaches, applications, and debates. Please do not be
>> concerned about, at times, huge amount of readings for some topics as my
>> students will choose how much they will want to read for each selected
>> topic. Actually, I have completely eliminated homework in my classes and
>> limited in-class reading to 20-30 min. This promotes students
>> self-assignment when they want to study on their own a topic of their own
>> interest (sometimes beyond the semester).
>> Can you look through my topics to see if I missed something important in
>> terms of sociocultural educational theories, approaches, applications,
>> debates, and readings, please? I’d appreciate your suggestions, including
>> changing titles of topics of their descriptive teasers.
>> Thanks,
>> Eugene
>> PS (by Ana): Please send  your responses to Eugene at
>> ematusov@udel.edu
>> Curricular map for EDUC855.16F: Sociocultural Theories of Education
>> 1. Orientation to the class curriculum. Psychological sociocultural
>> approaches (James Wertsch) Introduction to the course. Why are you taking
>> this class? What do you want to learn? What is “sociocultural”
>> theory/approach to education? What theory/approach is not “sociocultural”?
>> Diverse answers to these questions.
>> Diverse sociocultural approaches: Curricular Map for our class.
>> Approaches, dialogic oppositions and applications.
>> Sociological view of our class: who you are and who am I? Am I a
>> “student,” or a “learner,” or both, or neither? How do you want to be
>> treated in the class: as a “student” or as a “learner” or both? What does
>> it mean in practical terms? Our roles in the class mediated by syllabus.
>> Diverse type of syllabus: Closed Syllabi, Opening Syllabi, Open Syllabi.
>> What should type of syllabus be in our class? Curriculum as content (stuff
>> to study) vs. vista (diverse perspectives on the societal practices and
>> institutions of education). Giving table of context of textbooks and
>> conventional syllabus curricula. Virtual people in the practice. What type
>> of learning activities do we want in our class? Class web (do we need it).
>> What is our next topic?
>> Readings:
>> Wertsch, J. V. (1989). A sociocultural approach to mind: Some theoretical
>> considerations. Cultural Dynamics, 2(2), 140-161.
>> Wertsch, J. V. (1991). Voices of the mind: A sociocultural approach to
>> mediated action. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Press.
>> 2. Lev Vygotsky's sociohistorical theory How do development and
>> learning relate? Individual and social: cultural, communal, and
>> practice-based... Are we losing agency? One of the major contribution of
>> Vygotsky in developmental psychology and education is that he showed that
>> individual development is NOT rooted in individual -- not even in his/her
>> interaction with the environment, --  but rather in a culture. The key
>> concept for this idea is the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD) created,
>> according to Vygotsky, in a joint activity with more knowledgeable others
>> (peers or adults). Matusov argues that although Vygotsky demonstrated that
>> development is a social and cultural process, he still assumed that the
>> result of the development is individual property of doing everything well
>> by him/herself. According to Matusov, Vygotsky was culturally biased
>> assuming that mastery of solo activity is developmentally more advanced
>> than joint activity with others. Lave resolves the described dichotomy of
>> individual and social by considering an individual as a member of a
>> "community of practice." Do you think that these scholars has gone too far
>> in their emphasis on the social, cultural, and communal nature of human
>> development that they have "forgotten" about individual human agency? What
>> do you think?
>> Readings:
>> Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher
>> psychological processes (ch. 6, 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
>> Press.
>> Matusov, E. (1998). When solo activity is not privileged: Participation
>> and internalization models of development. Human Development, 41(5-6),
>> 326-349.
>> Lave, J. (1992, April). Learning as participation in communities of
>> practice (1-6). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational
>> Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
>> 3. Mediation (Wolfgang Köhler): 6) Cognition as mediation: Cognition
>> in a cage vs. cognition in the wild What is cognition? What is stupidity?
>> What defines thinking? Smart affordances vs. mediation. Is cognition in a
>> cage different or similar to cognition in the wild?
>> Readings:
>> Köhler, W. (1927). The mentality of apes (intro, ch1, pp. 1-24). London:
>> Routledge and Kegan Paul.
>> Waal, F. B. M. d. (1989). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes
>> (pp. 86-139). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
>> 4. Cognition: Universal vs Particular
>> Cultural diversity and universality in cognition: Do "primitives" have
>> abstract reasoning? These three sequential chapters (please read them in
>> this order) present one story about how Western culture views traditional
>> cultures. Luria's chapter presents a "deficit model" of portraying others
>> by focusing on deficits in thinking of others. Scribner, who replicated
>> Luria's research and got the same results reinterpreted the findings. She
>> not only found evidence of abstract formal thinking in traditional
>> people's reasoning but she also found a "strange property" of such Western
>> practice as syllogisms. Scribner raised a question of why these practices
>> developed in the history of Western civilizations and what it has to do
>> with schooling. Finally, Latour seems to take the matter further by
>> challenging the idea of illogical and irrational thinking and behavior
>> arguing that "irrationality" can be evidence of cultural "egocentrism" (in
>> Piagetian terms) of the Western observer who is ignorant of his or her own
>> cultural, institutional, and historical contexts in which thinking and
>> behavior are situated. It appears that in the x-cultural studies like
>> Luria's one we learn more about observers and researchers than about
>> observed. Which returns back to Scribner's quest about schooling and
>> asking questions that do not make practical sense (e.g., syllogisms).
>> Readings:
>> Luria, A. R. (1976). Cognitive development, its cultural and social
>> foundations (ch. 1, 3-19; ch. 5, 117-134). Cambridge, MA: Harvard
>> University Press.
>> Scribner, S. (1977). Modes of thinking and ways of speaking: Culture and
>> logic reconsidered. In P. N. Johnson-Laird & P. C. Wason (Eds.), Thinking
>> (pp. 483-500). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
>> Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and
>> engineers through society (ch. 5, pp. 179-213). Cambridge, MA: Harvard
>> University Press.
>> 5. Western schooling and non-Western informal learning How guidance in
>> informal learning is different/similar to guidance in school? About a
>> decade ago, a friend and colleague of mine returned from Togo, a West
>> African country on the Gulf of Guinea, where he taught mathematics for
>> nine months in a local university. He told me that the native people of
>> Togo do not care about their kids and do not teach them anything. The kids
>> grow like wild grass under the sky and are left to their own devices. My
>> friend gave me a long list of what Togo adults and children do that does
>> not, from his point of view, constitute guidance. Knowing (in an abstract
>> way) the complexity of human practices in any given society, I could not
>> believe his conclusion about the Togo people; however, I felt also that he
>> was probably faced there with some very interesting and real phenomenon.
>> Dutch researcher Mariétte de Haan’s book about how Mexican Mazahua Indian
>> children learn in their community and in school helps me to understand the
>> phenomenon that my friend faced in Togo. It is not because I believe that
>> how adults provide guidance and children learn in Togo and Mazahua
>> communities are necessarily similar but because to a high degree the
>> phenomenon centers around people from Western middle-class communities to
>> which my friend and I belong. To be exact, it is about relations between
>> the communities. For a long time, Western educators and psychological
>> researchers have believed that “guidance is guidance” and “learning is
>> learning” – they are universal everywhere. Wood, Bruner, and Ross’
>> pioneering research on adult guidance described important principles of
>> adult engagement with children in adult-child tutoring sessions that the
>> authors called “scaffolding” (see article by Wood, Bruner and Ross).
>> Rogoff (1990) presented these principles of scaffolding.  It appears that
>> my friend could not find these principles in the interactions between Togo
>> adults and children and, thus, he concluded that there was no guidance.
>> Similarly, in de Haan’s research, a non-Mazahua, Mestizo informant
>> reported that Mazahua parents are “not interested in their children… and
>> do not educate” them (p. 74).
>> Readings:
>> Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in
>> problem solving. Journal of Child psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.
>> de Haan, M. (1999). Learning as cultural practice: How children learn in a
>> Mexican Mazahua community (ch. 5, 6). Amsterdam: Thela Thesis.
>> 6. Activity Theory (Vasiliy Davydov, Yrjö Engeström) Activity Theory
>> claims that human (and higher animals') subjectivity is shaped by their
>> purposeful activities, by their goals. Goals make human activity
>> meaningful. However, goals are undergoing through transformation in the
>> activity. Activity, based on overcoming obstacles, generates the subject
>> and the object mediated by tools and solutions. Activities involve
>> contradictions. Learning is a by-product of a purposeful activity. To
>> teach means to engage students in certain activities that are meaningful,
>> i.e., purposeful, for the students.
>> Readings:
>> Davydov, V. V. (1998). The concept of developmental teaching. Journal of
>> Russian & East European Psychology, 36(4), 11-36.
>> Davydov, V. V., & Tsvetkovich, Z. (1991). On the objective origin of the
>> concept of fractions. Focus on learning problems in Mathematics, 13(1),
>> 13-64.
>> Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity-theoretic
>> approach to developmental research. Helsinki, Finland: Orienta-Konsultit
>> Oy.
>> Engeström, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamèaki-Gitai, R.-L. (1999).
>> Perspectives on activity theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
>> 7. Situated cognition (Jean Lave and others): Math in school and
>> everyday life Math in everyday life: Does school help to do everyday math?
>> School assumes to prepare students for "real life." But does it? Does
>> school math help everyday math? Do people use in grocery store the same
>> math that is used in schools? If school does not teach math used in other
>> practices what does it teach? Why do we need schools?
>> Readings:
>> Säljö, R., & Wyndhamn, J. (1993). Solving everyday problems in the formal
>> setting: An empirical study of the school as context for thought. In S.
>> Chaiklin & J. Lave (Eds.), Understanding practice. Perspectives on
>> activity and context (pp. 327-342). New York: Cambridge University Press.
>> Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in
>> everyday life (chs. 4-6, pp. 76-144). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
>> Press.
>> Hutchins, E. (1983). Understanding Micronesian navigation. In D. Gentner &
>> A. L. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models (pp. 191-225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
>> Associates.
>> 8. Teaching as cultural practice: Math in schools Teaching as a
>> cultural practice: What does it take to be a good math teacher?  What does
>> it mean to teach math in context? Does it mean using everyday contexts for
>> math word problems? Or using hands-on manipulatives? Or fieldtrips? Or
>> engaging kinds in personal and social math-based activism? What kind of
>> math should school teach and how? Is teaching governed by pedagogical
>> techniques or by cultural practices? Can teaching be borrowed from another
>> culture?
>> Readings:
>> Stevenson, H. W., & Stigler, J. W. (1992). The learning gap: Why our
>> schools are failing and what we can learn from Japanese and Chinese
>> education (ch. 9, pp. 174-199). New York: Summit Books.
>> Lave, J. (1992). Word problems: A microcosm of theories of learning. In P.
>> Light & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Context and cognition: Ways of learning and
>> knowing (pp. 74-92). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
>> Mukhopadhyay, S., & Greer, B. (2001). Modeling with purpose: Mathematics
>> as a critical tool. In B. Atweh, H. Forgasz & B. Nebres (Eds.),
>> Sociocultural research on mathematics education: An international
>> perspective (pp. 295-311). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
>> 9. Community of practice (Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger) Learning is
>> viewed as transformation of participation and identity in a community of
>> practice as the participants become legitimate peripheral participants.
>> Learning is not separate from social relationships -- a membership in a
>> community of practice. A community is defined by a shared practice, in
>> which the members participate.
>> Readings:
>> Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral
>> participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
>> Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and
>> identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
>> 10. Community of learners (Ann Brown, Joe Campione) The idea of a
>> community of learners is based on the premise that learning occurs as
>> people participate in shared endeavors with others, with all playing
>> active but often asymmetrical roles in sociocultural activity. This
>> contrasts with models of learning that are based on one-sided notions of
>> learning— either that it occurs through transmission of knowledge from
>> experts or acquisition of knowledge by novices, with the learner or the
>> others (respectively) in a passive role.
>> Readings
>> Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1994). Guided discovery in a community of
>> learners. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive
>> theory and classroom practice. (pp. 229-270). Cambridge, MA,: The MIT
>> Press.
>> Brown, A. L., & Campione, J. C. (1998). Designing a community of young
>> learners: Theoretical and practical lessons. In N. M. Lambert & B. L.
>> McCombs (Eds.), How students learn: Reforming schools through
>> learner-centered education (pp. 153-186). Washington, DC: American
>> Psychological Association.
>> Rogoff, B., Matusov, E., & White, C. (1996). Models of teaching and
>> learning: Participation in a community of learners. In D. R. Olson & N.
>> Torrance (Eds.), The handbook of education and human development: New
>> models of learning, teaching and schooling (pp. 388-414). Malden, MA, US:
>> Blackwell Publishers Inc.
>> Matusov, E., von Duyke, K., & Han, S. (2012). Community of Learners:
>> Ontological and non-ontological projects. Outlines: Critical Social
>> Studies, 14(1), 41-72.
>> 11. Cultural and social reproduction (Pierre Bourdieu) In Bourdieu’s
>> social reproduction thesis. Cultural capital is assumed to be one of the
>> central family based endowments whose social class value impacts offspring
>> intergenerational educational probabilities unequally. Inequalities in
>> educational stratification and occupational achievement are reproduced via
>> schools. As an analytic concept, cultural capital has generated
>> considerable interest. But as a mechanism of class analysis the social
>> reproduction thesis, and the role of cultural capital in it, cannot be
>> confirmed empirically in large - scale representative, longitudinal data
>> (or across various national settings). The role of teachers and schools,
>> argued in Bourdieu’s theory to be central agents of exclusion and
>> reproduction of class inequality connecting families to stratification
>> outcomes cannot be confirmed in quantitative research. Cultural capital
>> seen strictly as a mechanism of class reproduction as specified in
>> Bourdieu’s framework, has limited analytic potential that restricts its
>> application in multicultural societies.
>> Readings:
>> Bourdieu, P. (1977). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction (pp.
>> 487-611). In Power and ideology in education, edited by J. Karabel and A.
>> H. Halsey. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
>> Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education,
>> society, and culture. London: Sage.
>> Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in capitalist America:
>> Educational reform and the contradictions of economic life. New York:
>> Basic Books.
>> 12. Cultural apprenticeship (Jean Lave, Barbara Rogoff) The cultural
>> apprentice perspective is an educational theory of apprenticeship
>> concerning the process of learning through cultural, social, and physical
>> integration into the practices associated with the subject, such as
>> workplace training. By developing similar performance to other
>> practitioners, an apprentice will come to understand the tacit (informally
>> taught) duties of the position. In the process of creating this awareness,
>> the learner also affect their environment; as they are accepted by master
>> practitioners, their specific talents and contributions within the field
>> are taken into account and integrated into the overall practice.
>> The Apprenticeship Perspective can be used to teach procedures to
>> students. For example, tying a shoe, building a fire, and taking blood can
>> all use the Apprenticeship Perspective to teach students these skills.
>> However, it can be used to develop master practitioners in fields that
>> involve increased complexity, numerous webs of interaction, or shifting
>> environments demanding constant attention. Driver education, flight
>> training and sports training all use the Apprenticeship Perspective for
>> learners to learn a specific skill.
>> Readings
>> Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in
>> social context. New York: Oxford University Press.
>> Lave, J. (2011). Apprenticeship in critical ethnographic practice.
>> Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
>> 13. Funds of knowledge and culturally responsive pedagogy (Luis Moll,
>> Gloria Landson-Billings) Funds of knowledge is defined by researchers Luis
>> Moll, Cathy Amanti, Deborah Neff, and Norma Gonzalez (2001) “to refer to
>> the historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge
>> and skills essential for household or individual functioning and
>> well-being” (p. 133). When teachers shed their role of teacher and expert
>> and, instead, take on a new role as learner, they can come to know their
>> students and the families of their students in new and distinct ways. With
>> this new knowledge, they can begin to see that the households of their
>> students contain rich cultural and cognitive resources and that these
>> resources can and should be used in their classroom in order to provide
>> culturally responsive and meaningful lessons that tap students’ prior
>> knowledge. Information that teachers learn about their students in this
>> process is considered the student’s funds of knowledge.
>> Culturally relevant or responsive teaching is a pedagogy grounded in
>> teachers' displaying cultural competence: skill at teaching in a
>> cross-cultural or multicultural setting. They enable each student to
>> relate course content to his or her cultural context. While the term
>> culturally relevant teaching often deals specifically with instruction
>> of African American students in the United States. It has been proven
>> to be an effective form of pedagogy for students of all racial and
>> ethnic backgrounds. For instance, in Canada, research reflects the
>> need to bridge the gap between traditional Aboriginal education and
>> Western education systems by including spirituality in Aboriginal
>> educational practices. By making education culturally relevant, it is
>> thought to improve academic achievement. Although the majority of this
>> practice is undertaken in a primary or secondary school setting,
>> Readings:
>> Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & González, N. (1992). Funds of
>> knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and
>> classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132-141.
>> Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant
>> pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.
>> 14. Ecological historical approach to minority school failure (John
>> Ogbu) Why do so many minority students fail in school? Debate on
>> home-school mismatch and involuntary minorities. Different scholars
>> explain differently of minority students disproportionably fail in school.
>> Vogt, Jordan and Tharp refer to the home-school cultural mismatch as the
>> main source of failure. While Ogbu argues that history of the minority is
>> more important than a cultural mismatch. To solve the problem, Delpit
>> suggests teaching minority students "the master's tools" and culture in an
>> explicit way. However, Gee argues that it is impossible to destroy "the
>> master's house using the master's tools" -- the critical review of
>> institutional power in schools is due.
>> Readings:
>> Ogbu, J. U. (1990). Literacy and schooling in subordinate cultures: The
>> case of Black Americans. In K. Lomotey (Ed.), Going to school: The
>> African-American experience (pp. 113-131). Albany, NY, US: State
>> University of New York Press.
>> Vogt, L. A., Jordan, C., & Tharp, R. G. (1987). Explaining school failure,
>> producing school success: Two cases. Anthropology & Education Quarterly,
>> 18(4), 276-286.
>> Delpit, L. D. (1995). Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the
>> classroom (pp. 152-166). New York: New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton.
>> Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in
>> discourses (ch.1, viii-21). London: Taylor & Francis.
>> 15. Culture as disability (Ray McDermott): School success and school
>> failure Design of academic success and failure in school: Where is
>> academic success and failure located? Learning and teaching
>> disabilities... Why do some children fail in school while others succeed?
>> Traditionally to answer these questions, educators, scholars and general
>> public refer to individual properties of the students: natural intellect,
>> motivation, learning disabilities, giftedness, attitude, and so on. The
>> following readings represent another approach although. These scholars
>> argue that academic success and failure design by schools. Yes, schools
>> despite their all claims to commitment to "educate all children" (cf.
>> Labaree's first goal of schools of "democratic participation"), schools
>> are busy designing school successes of whom are below average. As Labaree
>> argues, success for all would inflate school credentials and thus would
>> undermine the social mobility goal of school. However, how success and
>> failure are designed in classrooms? How the dynamics set that produce
>> school failure and school success on a systematic basis?
>> Readings:
>> McDermott, R. P. (1993). The acquisition of a child by a learning
>> disability. In S. Chaiklin & J. Lave (Eds.), Understanding practice:
>> Perspectives on activity and context (pp. 269-305). New York: Cambridge
>> University Press.
>> Varenne, H., & McDermott, R. P. (1998). Successful failure: The school
>> America builds (Ch. 5, pp 106-128). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
>> Matusov, E., DePalma, R., & Drye, S. (2007). Whose development? Salvaging
>> the concept of development within a sociocultural approach to education.
>> Educational Theory, 57(4), 403-421.
>> 16. Feminism (Carol Gilligan)
>> Many feminists believe that women are being suppressed by a male-dominated
>> society both in education and also in later life. They argue that the
>> curriculum is more based around traditionally male-dominated subjects.
>> Thus it sets up men more than women for further education or more
>> prosperous work opportunities. Coupled with this is the stereotypical view
>> of a woman’s part in society – of becoming housewives, marrying early and
>> having children. Feminists argue that this contributes to the suppression
>> put on women by the male-run society.
>> Sociologists Heaton and Lawson (1996, p. 76) argue that the ‘hidden’
>> curriculum is a major source of gender socialisation within schools. They
>> believe that schools seemed to show or have: text books with modern family
>> culture and where children are taught from an early age that males are
>> dominant within the family; various subjects are aimed at a certain gender
>> group, for example Food Technology would be aimed at females, leading on
>> to the typical role of females doing housework and cooking; sports in
>> schools are very much male and female dominated within the education
>> system, with boys playing rugby and cricket while girls play netball and
>> rounders. It could be seen that the majority of teachers are female, but
>> that the senior management positions are mainly male-dominated, although
>> this is not the case in some schools.
>> Readings:
>> Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and
>> women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
>> Purvis, J. (1994). Feminist theory in education. British Journal of
>> Sociology of Education, 15(1), 137-140.
>> 17. Critical race theory in education (Gloria Ladson-Billings)
>> Critical race theory (CRT) is an analytical framework that stems from the
>> field of critical legal studies that addresses the racial inequities in
>> society. Critical race theory (CRT) recognizes that racism is endemic to
>> American life, expresses skepticism toward dominant legal claims of
>> neutrality, objectivity, colorblindness, and meritocracy challenges
>> ahistoricism and insists on a contextual/historical analysis off the law
>> (and education) presumes that racism has contributed to all contemporary
>> manifestations off group advantage and disadvantage. Scholars of education
>> have used CRT as a framework to further analyze and critique educational
>> research and practice.
>> Reading:
>> Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W. F. (1995). Toward a critical race theory
>> of education. Teachers college record, 97(1), 47-68.
>> Dixson, A. D., & Rousseau, C. K. (2006). Critical race theory in
>> education: All God's children got a song. New York: Routledge.
>> Parker, L., Deyhle, D., & Villenas, S. A. (1999). Race is-- race isn't:
>> Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder, CO:
>> Westview Press.
>> Lynn, M., & Dixson, A. D. (2013). Handbook of critical race theory in
>> education. New York: Routledge.
>> 18. Ecological approaches (Urie Bronfenbrenner, James Gibson):
>> Contextualism and affordances in psychology education What is context? Is
>> it a factor that can be considered separately in addition to a main,
>> universal function (e.g., cognition, learning) or is it an inseparable
>> part of the any phenomenon? Is context objective, existing outside of a
>> psychological phenomenon, or is it subjective and a part of a
>> psychological phenomenon? What kinds of contexts exist? Why context is
>> important for learning? Purposeful activity vs affordances: all "action
>> possibilities" latent in the environment, independent of an individual's
>> ability to recognize them, but always in relation to agents (people or
>> animals) and therefore dependent on their capabilities. For instance, a
>> set of steps which rises four feet high does not afford the act of
>> climbing if the actor is a crawling infant. Gibson's is the prevalent
>> definition in cognitive psychology.
>> Readings:
>> Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Bioecological model from a life course
>> perspective: Reflections of a participant observer. In Moen, P., Elder
>> Jr., G. H., and Luscher, K. (Eds), Examining lives in context:
>> Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 599-647). Washington
>> DC: APA.
>> Cole, M. (1995). The supra-individual envelope of development: Activity
>> and practice, situation and context. In J. J. Goodnow, P. J. Miller & et
>> al. (Eds.), Cultural practices as contexts for development (pp. 105-118).
>> San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers.
>> Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception.
>> Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
>> Gibson, E. J. (2002). Perceiving the affordances: A portrait of two
>> psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
>> 19. Connectionism and actor-networks theory (George Siemens, Bruno
>> Latour) Which skills and practices are relevant to an even changing world,
>> and how are those skills addressed in current educational practices?
>> Technology-mediated personal learning networks: How does "connectivism"
>> (as defined by George Siemens) impact our view of what knowledge or
>> expertise are? Including technology and connection making as learning
>> activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age. We can no
>> longer personally experience and acquire learning that we need to act. We
>> derive our competence from forming connections. Chaos is a new reality for
>> knowledge workers. Unlike constructivism, which states that learners
>> attempt to foster understanding by meaning making tasks, chaos states that
>> the meaning exists – the learner's challenge is to recognize the patterns
>> which appear to be hidden. Meaning-making and forming connections between
>> specialized communities are important activities. Chaos, as a science,
>> recognizes the connection of everything to everything.
>> Connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network,
>> and complexity and self-organization theories. Learning is a process that
>> occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core elements – not
>> entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as
>> actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an
>> organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized
>> information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are
>> more important than our current state of knowing.
>> Readings:
>> Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital
>> age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance
>> Learning, 2(1), 1-8. Retrieved
>> fromhttp://itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm
>> Latour, B. (1996). On actor-network theory: A few clarifications plus
>> more than a few complications. Retrieved from
>> http://www.bruno-latour.fr/sites/default/files/P-67%20ACTOR-NETWORK.pd
>> f
>> Latour, B. (1996). Aramis, or, The love of technology. Cambridge, MA:
>> Harvard University Press.
>> 20. Dialogism (Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Socrates) Russian
>> philosopher of dialogism Mikhail Bakhtin argued that meaning making
>> process is dialogic in its nature and occurs in the relationship between
>> genuine question and seriously answer. Can education be dialogic in this
>> sense, when the teacher knows "more" and students know "less"? Ironically,
>> Bakhtin used examples of conventional educational practices to illustrate
>> his notion of "excessive monologism." Should education focus on critical
>> meaning making or on students' arriving at the curricular endpoints,
>> preset by the teacher in advance (e.g., educational standards, common
>> core)? If dialogic pedagogy possible, what is its goal and what can be the
>> teacher's role in it, as a genuine dialogic partner?
>> Readings:
>> Plato, & Bluck, R. S. (1961). Meno. Cambridge, UK: University Press.
>> Freire, P. (1986). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
>> Matusov, E. (2009). Journey into dialogic pedagogy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova
>> Science Publishers.
>> Sidorkin, A. M. (1999). Beyond discourse: Education, the self, and
>> dialogue. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
>> Wegerif, R. (2007). Dialogic, educational and technology: Expanding the
>> space of learning. New York: Springer-Verlag.
>> 21. Authorial Agency (Eugene Matusov)
>> Authorial agency focuses on the production of culture, which is the
>> individual’s unique culture making activity on larger, more recognizable,
>> and smaller, less recognizable, scales. Authorial agency is defined
>> through socially recognized personal transcendence of the given — a person’s
>> transcendence of the given recognized positively and/or negatively by
>> others and by the self, “the subject desires recognition from another and
>> is constituted through this recognition… The gaps embedded in repetition
>> are, for Butler, the location of agency” (Clare, 2009, p. 51). Authorial
>> agency is not freedom from the natural causes, necessities, ready-made
>> culture, social dynamics, nature, and iron logic but rather it uses these
>> as the material of transcendence. In the process of socially recognized
>> transcendence of the given culture and practice, new goals, new
>> definitions of quality, new motivations, new wills, new commitments, new
>> skills, new knowledge, new relationships will emerge.
>> In conventional technological education, students are expected to postpone
>> exercising their authorial agency until they become fully equipped with
>> the powerful cultural toolkit of essential knowledge, skills, attitudes,
>> and dispositions — i.e., after the education is fully completed. Student’s
>> agency is usually neglected if not actively suppressed by the teachers as
>> distraction from the preset curricula. Thus, learning is often alienated
>> from the students’ authorial agency. Occasionally, teachers may try to
>> exploit students’authorial agency for engaging them into the prescribed
>> curriculum but the teachers often worry that things may get out of control
>> and the students may hijack the lesson (Kennedy, 2005). The technological
>> approach to education sees its goal as the reproduction of the ready-made
>> culture and in preparing students’ future active participation in the
>> ready-made culture.
>> Readings:
>> Matusov, E. (2011). Authorial teaching and learning. In E. J. White & M.
>> Peters (Eds.), Bakhtinian pedagogy: Opportunities and challenges for
>> research, policy and practice in education across the globe (pp. 21-46).
>> New York: Peter Lang Publishers.
>> Matusov, E., von Duyke, K., & Kayumova, S. (2016). Mapping concepts of
>> agency in educational contexts. Integrative Psychological and
>> Behavioral Science, 50(3), 420–446. doi: 10.1007/s12124-015-9334-2
>> 22. Cultural creolization (Eugene Matusov) What is a cultural mismatch
>> between the teacher's and students' cultural expectations and behavior?
>> Have you experienced ones? What can educational problems result from a
>> cultural mismatch? Is it possible to prevent cultural mismatches or not
>> and why? How can a teacher recognize a cultural mismatch (and not
>> intentional violation of cultural norms and expectations)? Facing a
>> cultural mismatch, what should the teacher do: a) make the student learn
>> and use only the cultural pattern of expectation and behavior dominant in
>> the mainstream culture that the teacher belongs to, b) learn the student's
>> cultural pattern of expectations and behavior for providing better
>> guidance and comfort to the student, or c) something else (what is it and
>> why)? What would you do, as a teacher, when face a cultural mismatch?
>> Cultural creolization is based on a sociocultural family of approaches
>> which treats the differences of the participants in multicultural settings
>> as resources in the construction of new, precisely multi-cultural. or
>> creole, learning communities rather than on fixing individuals' deficits.
>> In this model, an appropriate pedagogical regime is conceived of as
>> building a new, creole educational community that draws on the cultures
>> and histories of children, teachers, instructors, and community leaders.
>> Readings:
>> Matusov, E., St. Julien, J., & Hayes, R. (2005). Building a creole
>> educational community as the goal of multicultural education for
>> preservice teachers. In L. V. Barnes (Ed.), Contemporary teaching and
>> teacher issues (pp. 1-38). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.
>> Matusov, E., Smith, M. P., Candela, M. A., & Lilu, K. (2007). “Culture has
>> no internal territory”: Culture as dialogue. In J. Valsiner & A. Rosa
>> (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Socio-Cultural Psychology (pp. 460-483).
>> Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
>> 23. Sociocultural psychological approaches as a response to the
>> Information-Processing psychological framework Arguably, a Sociocultural
>> approach has emerged in part in a response to the Cognitive Revolution
>> started in the 1950s and its Information-Processing approach (IP). The
>> Information-Processing approach considers mind to be processing
>> information, like some kind of a super-powerful computer, affected by
>> diverse contextual factors. In contrast, a Sociocultural approach argues
>> that mind is shaped by diverse contexts (e.g., societial, physical,
>> cultural, institutional, dialogic, activity) and does not exist outside of
>> these contexts. Below is an informative debate between
>> information-processing and sociocultural paradigms, arguing "wrong
>> questions."
>> Readings
>> Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Situated learning
>> and education. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 5-11.
>> Greeno, J. G. (1997). On claims that answer the wrong questions.
>> Educational Researcher, 26(1), 5-17.
>> Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1997). Situated versus
>> cognitive perspective: Form versus substance. Educational Researcher,
>> 26(1), 18-21.
>> 24. Learning and motivation in institutional contexts Why are so many
>> students who are not intrinsically motivated to learn in school? How and
>> why do the school and society create non-motivated students? What shapes
>> learning and motivation? Based on Labaree’s analysis, do you agree that
>> that many low-income students are not motivated in school learning
>> differently than unmotivated middle-class students, why, how? Can we
>> change the situation with non-motivated students and if so, how?
>> Readings:
>> Labaree, D. F. (1997). How to succeed in school without really learning:
>> The credentials race in American education (ch. 10, pp 250-262). New
>> Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
>> Labaree, D. F. (1997). How to succeed in school without really learning:
>> The credentials race in American education (ch. 1, pp 15-52). New Haven,
>> CT: Yale University Press.
>> 25. Transfer and context
>> Does transfer of learning exist? If not "transfer" then what? Situated and
>> information processing theories of cognition and learning. Where is
>> learning located: in individuals' heads or in their activities? Is the
>> purpose of schools to teach students decontextualized basic skills and how
>> the students can apply these skills for different specific situations?
>> Traditional schools are somewhat successful in teaching many (but not all)
>> students how to pass school exams and tests on basic skills. The main
>> educational paradox is that passing these tests does not guarantee that
>> the students can successfully apply them for diverse specific situations.
>> Many students could not recognize the situations requiring the basic
>> skills learned in school or they apply wrong skills that are not
>> appropriate for the given situation. Moreover, some people, who cannot
>> pass the school basic skill tests, can very successful operate in specific
>> situations. The described difficulties experienced by students of
>> traditional schooling are called "transfer problem."
>> Readings:
>> Bransford, J. D., & Schwartz, D. L. (2001). Rethinking transfer: A simple
>> proposal with multiple implications. Review of Research in Education,
>> 24(3), 61-100.
>> Beach, K. D. (1999). Consequential transitions: A sociocultural expedition
>> beyond transfer in education. Review of Research in Education, 24(3),
>> 101-139.
>> Tuomi-Gröhn, T., & Engeström, Y. (2003). Conceptualizing transfer: From
>> standard notions to developmental perspectives. In T. Tuomi-Gröhn & Y.
>> Engeström (Eds.), Between school and work: New perspectives on transfer
>> and boundary-crossing (1st ed., pp. 19-38). Amsterdam: Pergamon.
>> Packer, M. (2001). The problem of transfer, and the sociocultural critique
>> of schooling. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(4), 493-514.
>> 26. Literacy, culture, and cognition
>> Does literacy changes human cognition? Do literate people think
>> differently, more powerfully than illiterate? Ong says, "yes." Scribner,
>> Cole, and Matusov say human cognition is shaped by practices and social
>> relations in which literacy is embedded. Are you with Ong or Scribner,
>> Cole and Matusov? Why?
>> Readings:
>> Ong, W. J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word
>> (ch. 2, pp. 28-43). New York: Methuen.
>> Scribner, S., & Cole, M. (1988). Unpackaging literacy. In E. R. Kintgen,
>> B. M. Kroll & M. Rose (Eds.), Perspectives on literacy (pp. 57-70).
>> Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
>> Matusov, E., & St. Julien, J. (2004). Print literacy as oppression: Cases
>> of bureaucratic, colonial, totalitarian literacies and their implications
>> for schooling. TEXT: International Journal, 24(2), 197-244.
>> 27. Ways of talking, writing, and reading Doesn’t non-Standard English
>> reflect deficiency in one's talking and thinking or non-Standard English
>> is full-developed language among other languages? Why do people, who form
>> different cultural communities, organize their language differently?
>> Whether and if so how can the teacher support diverse ways of talking in
>> the classroom? Should the teacher do so? What do you think?
>> Readings:
>> Bereiter, C., & Engelmann, S. (1970). Language learning activities for the
>> disadvantaged child (pp.5-9). New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai
>> Brith.
>> Labov, W. (1974). Academic ignorance and Black intelligence. In R. J.
>> Mueller, D. Ary & C. McCormick (Eds.), Readings in classroom learning and
>> perception (pp. 328-345). New York: Praeger.
>> Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural
>> education. Language Learning, 16(1-2), 1-21.
>> 28. What happens when you can't count past four? Contexts in Cognition
>> (developmental cognition) Do contexts always necessarily affect cognition
>> at its most basic level? For instance, it would be interesting to read
>> about the Amazonia tribes—the Munduruku and the Piraha. These are two
>> examples where their contexts are very different from ours and yet-- they
>> have numerical systems similar to ours. Why is that? How do they differ
>> when context is brought into the picture? How are they the same?
>> Readings:
>> Butterworth, B. (2004). What happens when you can't count past four?
>> https://www.theguardian.com/education/2004/oct/21/research.highereduca
>> tion1
>> Gordon, P. (2004). Numerical cognition without words: Evidence from
>> Amazonia. Science, 306(5695), 496-499.
>> 29. Science in action: Do scientists discover truth or construct
>> knowledge? Or why is it so difficult to read scientific texts?
>> Science in action: Do scientists discover truth or construct knowledge? Or
>> why is it so difficult to read scientific texts? What is science and how
>> is it different from non-science or pseudoscience? Philosophers like
>> positivist Popper tried to develop criteria of science based on what
>> individual scientist does (according to the scientist’s own record).
>> Latour, who had training in anthropology studying African indigenous
>> religions, approach to study of science differently -- like an
>> anthropologist. He decided to study not what scientists say about what
>> they do, but actual practice of science making (science-in-action). He
>> then compared his findings with scientists' claims and got two face
>> Janus...
>> Readings:
>> Popper, K. (1998). Science: Conjectures and refutations. In M. Curd & J.
>> A. Cover (Eds.), Philosophy of science: The central issues (1st ed., pp.
>> 3-9). New York: W.W. Norton.
>> Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and
>> engineers through society (intro and ch.1, pp. 1-62). Cambridge, MA:
>> Harvard University Press.
>> 30. Science in school
>> What is the purpose of science education? What is science teaching about?
>> Is it about providing hands-on activities where students will discover
>> scientific facts for themselves? Or should science classroom promote
>> scientific thinking in every students as a set of individual skills? Or
>> should science classes reproduce scientific communities? Or should science
>> create "semantic networks" of talking science? Or should it involve
>> students' identity? Why do school alumni know little science? Some do
>> students become scientists but many do not? Why are fewer women or
>> minority scientists there?
>> Readings:
>> Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning, and values
>> (ch.1, pp. 1-24). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub. Corp.
>> Matusov, E. (2016, submitted). What kills science in school?: Lessons from
>> pre-service teachers’ responses to urban children’s science inquiries,
>> 1-25.
>> Brickhouse, N. W., Lowery, P., & Schultz, K. (2000). What kind of a girl
>> does science? The construction of school science identities. Journal of
>> Research in Science Teaching, 37(5), 441-458.
>> ----------------------------
>> Eugene Matusov, PhD
>> Editor-in-Chief, Dialogic Pedagogy Journal
>> Professor of Education
>> School of Education
>> 16 W Main st
>> University of Delaware
>> Newark, DE 19716, USA
>> Publications: http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/vita/publications.htm
>> DiaPed: http://diaped.soe.udel.edu
>> DPJ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/DPJ.two/
>> ----------------------------