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"The convergence of these two theories suggests some interesting hypotheses=
: First, for cultural change to have effects on individuals, ecocultural fo=
rces must be instantiated into activity settings which are a part of the ev=
eryday life of the individual. Changes which never influence goals, motives=
, personnel, tasks, and task requirements will have little effect on indivi=
dual cognition, emotion and behavior. This is as true of the home and commu=
nity setting, as it is for the classroom: efforts to "make culture relevant=
 for minority education" which do not also have the effect of reshaping rel=
evant features of classroom activity settings are unlikely to produce stron=
g effects on learning.

A second hypothesis relates specifically to children and to efforts to affe=
ct child development through parent training. Many programs rely on trainin=
g of parents to achieve socially desirable goals. The convergence of activi=
ty and ecocultural theory suggests that none of these will have lasting eff=
ects unless they create activities which are supported by the local ecocult=
ural niche.

A related version of the same hypothesis is a requirement that any effort t=
o train parents must require evidence that such training is not only suppor=
ted by the niche, but is adopted by other parents and diffused through the =
niche as a valued innovation by kinsmen and other culture members.

Uniting of activity and ecocultural theory provides an attractive alternati=
ve to explanations using packed, global terms, such as differential levels =
of "stimulation" for children, or packaged family-level measures such as so=
cioeconomic status rankings. Used in this way stimulation has roughly the s=
ame explanatory properties as bad night air. Something about better educate=
d mothers makes them more stimulating--but what? What are the mediating mec=
hanisms? The combination of the two theories provides a basis for specifyin=
g at the level of cultural activities what it is that accounts for differen=
tial behavior, and at the same time provides a principled basis for identif=
ying the ecocultural context which gives rise to the activities. What matte=
rs is the ecocultural factors that in turn influence the who, why, what and=
 how of the activities in which children spend their time.=E2=80=9D


> On Mar 23, 2016, at 5:21 PM, Greg Thompson <greg.a.thompson@gmail.com> wr=
> Cliff, thanks for this.
> Michael, yes, I'm entirely in agreement about the importance of the
> intransigence of a meaning of a concept for the individual - it has to be
> something outside of us in order to be of value to us, i.e. to enable
> newness, growth, development.
> Where I get tripped up is: does meaning have to be intransigent for a giv=
> community? I suppose the answer is: yes, if the point is the growth of th=
> community. But maybe not if the point is the growth of the individuals in
> that community (for whom the meaning may indeed be intransigent).
> Maybe.
> -greg
> On Wed, Mar 23, 2016 at 2:31 PM, Cliff O'Donnell <cliffo@hawaii.edu> wrot=
>> Greg, for an overview of the Yale Psycho-Educational Clinic, see:
>> Goldenburg, I. and Levine, M. (1969), The development and evolution of t=
>> YALE PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL CLINIC. Applied Psychology: An International
>> Review, 18, 101=E2=80=93110. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1969.tb00671.x
>> Cliff
>> On Mar 22, 2016, at 7:22 PM, Greg Thompson wrote:
>> Mike,
>>> Just wondering if you had any observations to share about the Yale
>>> Psycho-Educational Clinic?
>>> (or maybe you had left Yale by then?).
>>> Seemed like an interesting attempt to create a setting that would be ne=
>>> to hear more about from the outside.
>>> -greg
>>> On Mon, Mar 21, 2016 at 1:19 PM, mike cole <mcole@ucsd.edu> wrote:
>>> Trying to follow through on each of the concepts, Cliff.
>>>> In this connection, I notice that you use the term "activity setting"
>>>> which
>>>> you attribute to Vygotsky. The book I took the McDermott materials fro=
>>>> is
>>>> called "Understanding Practice: Perspectives on activity and context. =
>>>> that book, in the discussions among authors, Engestrom is led to decla=
>>>> that "the activity is the context."
>>>> So my mind is spinning around what an activity setting might refer to
>>>> over
>>>> and above "activity." And then there is the question of how your use o=
>>>> the
>>>> term context and the word setting relate to each other. And all of thi=
>>>> is
>>>> presumably closely linked to the discussion on text/context.
>>>> Interesting to revisit old topics from new perspectives.
>>>> mike
>>>> On Sun, Mar 20, 2016 at 11:55 AM, Cliff O'Donnell <cliffo@hawaii.edu>
>>>> wrote:
>>>> Thanks, Mike. Attached is the manuscript for my 2012 article with Rola=
>>>>> In it we discuss how we are using the concepts of context, culture, a=
>>>>> intersubjectivity.
>>>>> Note that context is expressed in one of the goals of community
>>>> psychology
>>>>> by its professional organization,
>>>>> the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA):
>>>>> =E2=80=98'to promote theory development and research that increases
>>>>> our understanding of human behavior in context=E2=80=99'
>>>>> (SCRA 2010 )."
>>>>> After discussing the many meanings of culture, we used the definition=
>>>>> the "shared meanings of people, developed through their history
>>>>> and activities." Also in our discussion of intersubjectivity, we note=
>>>>> "intersubjectivity does not imply uniformity. Diversity may be a shar=
>>>>> value,
>>>>> agreement about process may allow frequent conflict, and there will
>>>> always
>>>>> be differences among people in their skills, thoughts, experience, an=
>>>>> emotions. In
>>>>> addition, activity settings are dynamic; their characteristics are in
>>>> flux
>>>>> and, therefore, the intersubjectivity of their participants change ov=
>>>>> time (O=E2=80=99Donnell et al.
>>>>> 1993, p. 507)."
>>>>> Cliff
>>>>> On Mar 20, 2016, at 8:26 AM, mike cole wrote:
>>>>> Alfredo's comments sent me looking for background material on the CC
>>>>> side
>>>>>> of Roland and Cliff's article.
>>>>>> There is an article by Seymour as part of a special issue of MCA a
>>>>>> while
>>>>>> ago. It seems not to have attraced the notice it deserves.Attached.
>>>>>> Also attached is a recent summary of Community Psychology and
>>>>> Intervention
>>>>> research which seemed like promising background and perhaps a source =
>>>>>> additional ideas, since intervention is what so many us do
>>>>> professionally.
>>>>>> Myself, I have been thinking about why Roland and Cliff identified
>>>>>> secondary intersubjectivity as a key common principle.
>>>>>> mike
>>>>>> --
>>>>>> It is the dilemma of psychology to deal as a natural science with an
>>>>>> object
>>>>>> that creates history. Ernst Boesch
>>>>>> <Revisiting the Creating of Settings.pdf><communitypsych.pdf>
>>>> --
>>>> It is the dilemma of psychology to deal as a natural science with an
>>>> object
>>>> that creates history. Ernst Boesch
>>> --
>>> Gregory A. Thompson, Ph.D.
>>> Assistant Professor
>>> Department of Anthropology
>>> 880 Spencer W. Kimball Tower
>>> Brigham Young University
>>> Provo, UT 84602
>>> http://byu.academia.edu/GregoryThompson
>> Clifford R. O'Donnell, Ph.D.
>> Professor Emeritus
>> Past-President, Society for Community Research and Action (APA Division =
>> University of Hawai=E2=80=98i
>> Department of Psychology
>> 2530 Dole Street
>> Honolulu, HI 96822
> --=20
> Gregory A. Thompson, Ph.D.
> Assistant Professor
> Department of Anthropology
> 880 Spencer W. Kimball Tower
> Brigham Young University
> Provo, UT 84602
> http://byu.academia.edu/GregoryThompson