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[Xmca-l] How does a child avoid Buridanism before speech




Hi
As food for thought :

Vygotsky :

Not in vain does Bacon place control of nature and control of intellect in one order; he says that the bare hand and the mind taken in themselves do not mean much-the deed is done with tools and auxiliary means. 


But no one expressed with such clarity the general idea that freedom of will is derived from and develops in the process of the historical development of humanity as did Engels. He says: "Not in the imaginary independence of laws of nature does freedom lie,  but in recognizing these laws  and, based on this, knowing the possibilities of systematically making the laws  of nature work toward certain goals. This refers both to laws of external nature and to laws that govern the bodily and mental existence of man himself-that there are two classes of laws that can be separated from each other is the most important thing in our concept which is by no means far from reality. Consequently, freedom of will means nothing other than the ability to make a decision with knowledge of the matter" (Marx and Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 20, p. 116). In other words, Engels places in one order the control of nature and control of self. Freedom of will with respect to one and the other is, for him as for Hegel, understanding necessity. Self-Control  219 


Engels says: "Consequently, freedom is based on recognizing the needs of nature (Natumotwendigheiten), control of ourselves and of external nature; for this reason, it is  an indispensable product of historical development. The first humans coming out of the animal kingdom were in all essentials as lacking in freedom as the animals; but each step forward on the path of culture was a step toward freedom" (ibid.). 

Best

Haydi