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[xmca] Fwd: Toward a new biology of social adversity

*October 16, 2012; 109 (Supplement 2)**
**Biological Embedding of Early Social Adversity: From Fruit Flies to

*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
*Toward a new biology of social adversity*****

W. Thomas Boyce a,b,1, Marla B. Sokolowski b,c, and Gene E. Robinson d****
A School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada;****
B Experience-Based Brain and Biological Development Program, Canadian
Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Canada****
 C Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Fraser Mustard
Institute for Human Development, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON,
Canada; and****
 D Institute for Genomic Biology, Department of Entomology, Neuroscience
Program, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL****

Available online at: http://bit.ly/WoSZs8****
 “……Ernest Hemingway wrote in A Farewell to Arms that “*The world breaks
everyone and afterward many are strong in the broken places*”1With the
advent of industrialization, the forcible employment of children, and the
19th century child labor laws that followed, a broad recognition emerged
that even childhood (or perhaps especially childhood) can be “broken” by
the adversities of life in a harshly exploitative society (2).****
 The early 20th century ethnographic work of James Agee and Walker Evans (3)
 depicted the privations and afflictions of poor children reared in
impoverished settings, and the psychiatrist Robert Coles (4) documented the
extraordinary hardships faced by young, black children during the Civil
Rights Movement in the American South. The work of Yehuda et al. (5) and
others (6, 7) illuminated the systematic vulnerabilities sustained by
children of the Holocaust and famine survivors, and research by Evans and
Schamberg (8), Shonkoff and Phillips (9), Hackman and Farah (10), Neville
and colleagues (11), Lupien et al. (12), and Felitti et al. (13) has
systematically documented the neurodevelopmental and health consequences of
rearing in conditions of poverty and adversity****

Most recently, studies by Rutter (14), Gunnar and colleagues (15), Smyke et
al. (16) and Nelson et al. (17) have described the socioemotional and
cognitive deficits sustained by children growing up in orphanages and other
institutional settings with nonparental care. Hertzman and Boyce (18) and
Hertzman and coworkers (19) have geographically mapped such deficits,
linking developmental vulnerabilities at primary school entry to the unique
geosocietal circumstances of individual communities. …****

These observations, spanning a century and a half of historical time, have
convincingly depicted the disordered development and fragile health
incurred by children with exposures to deprivation, distress, and early
life difficulties. Nonetheless, and against the odds, not all children are
adversely affected by such struggles …
 The present harvest of findings, gathered together for this PNAS issue,
reflect a maturing and productive field, well-populated with promising
discovery and unique insight….”****
Biological Embedding of Early Social Adversity:
>From Fruit Flies to Kindergartners Sackler Colloquium*****
Achievements and challenges in the biology of environmental

Michael Rutter****
 Rigor, vigor, and the study of health

Nancy Adler, Nicole R. Bush, and Matthew S. Pantell****
 Putting the concept of biological embedding in historical

Clyde Hertzman****
 Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of
kindergarten children<http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17168.abstract.html?etoc>

W. Thomas Boyce, Jelena Obradović, Nicole R. Bush, Juliet Stamperdahl,
Young Shin Kim, and Nancy Adler****
 Social structures depend on innate determinants and chemosensory
processing in *Drosophila*<http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17174.abstract.html?etoc>

Jonathan Schneider, Michael H. Dickinson, and Joel D. Levine****
 Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the

Bruce S. McEwen****
 Experience and the developing prefrontal

Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk, Arif Muhammad, Yilin Li, Douglas O. Frost,
and Robbin Gibb****
 Social information changes the

Russell D. Fernald and Karen P. Maruska****
 Variations in postnatal maternal care and the epigenetic regulation of
metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 expression and hippocampal function in
the rat <http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17200.abstract.html?etoc>**

Rosemary C. Bagot, Tie-Yuan Zhang, Xianglan Wen, Thi Thu Thao Nguyen,
Huy-Binh Nguyen, Josie Diorio, Tak Pan Wong, and Michael J. Meaney****
 Associations between early life adversity and executive function in
children adopted internationally from

Camelia E. Hostinar, Sarah A. Stellern, Catherine Schaefer, Stephanie M.
Carlson, and Megan R. Gunnar****
 Critical period for acoustic preference in

Eun-Jin Yang, Eric W. Lin, and Takao K. Hensch****
 Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and depressed maternal mood alter
trajectory of infant speech

Whitney M. Weikum, Tim F. Oberlander, Takao K. Hensch, and Janet F. Werker**
 Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity
on institutionalized children's social skills at age

Alisa N. Almas, Kathryn A. Degnan, Anca Radulescu, Charles A. Nelson III,
Charles H. Zeanah, and Nathan A. Fox****
 Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring
growth <http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17232.abstract.html?etoc>***

Rahia Mashoodh, Becca Franks, James P. Curley, and Frances A. Champagne****
 Gene–environment interplay in *Drosophila melanogaster*: Chronic food
deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness

James Geoffrey Burns, Nicolas Svetec, Locke Rowe, Frederic Mery, Michael J.
Dolan, W. Thomas Boyce, and Marla B. Sokolowski****
 Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression
in songbird brain<http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17245.abstract.html?etoc>
 Jenny Drnevich, Kirstin L. Replogle, Peter Lovell, Thomas P. Hahn, Frank
Johnson, Thomas G. Mast, Ernest Nordeen, Kathy Nordeen, Christy Strand,
Sarah E. London, Motoko Mukai, John C. Wingfield, Arthur P. Arnold, Gregory
F. Ball, Eliot A. Brenowitz, Juli Wade, Claudio V. Mello, and David F.
 Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community

Lucia L. Lam, Eldon Emberly, Hunter B. Fraser, Sarah M. Neumann, Edith
Chen, Gregory E. Miller, and Michael S. Kobor****
 Genetic and environmental vulnerabilities in children with

Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Dean D’Souza, Tessa M. Dekker, Jo Van Herwegen,
Fei Xu, Maja Rodic, and Daniel Ansari****
 Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and
human hippocampus<http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17266.abstract.html?etoc>

Matthew Suderman, Patrick O. McGowan, Aya Sasaki, Tony C. T. Huang, Michael
T. Hallett, Michael J. Meaney, Gustavo Turecki, and Moshe Szyf****

Socioeconomic gradients in child development in very young children:
Evidence from India, Indonesia, Peru, and
            Lia C. H. Fernald, Patricia Kariger, Melissa Hidrobo, and Paul
J. Gertler****
Early environments and the ecology of

Thomas W. McDade****
 Early childhood poverty, immune-mediated disease processes, and adult

Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, Greg J. Duncan, Ariel Kalil, and W. Thomas Boyce****
 Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal
interaction between infants and their

Ronald G. Barr****
 Leveraging the biology of adversity to address the roots of disparities in
health and development<http://www.pnas.org/content/109/suppl.2/17302.abstract.html?etoc>
 Jack P. Shonkoff****

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