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Re: [xmca] Researchers looking into non-linear constructions of time
my PhD dissertation is on children's conceptions of time, but unfortunately
is only in Greek.
In any case clocks represent the conventional time which is totally
different from the personal psychological time.
According to Piaget, we conceptualize time through its major dimensions the
duration and the succesion of events.
Long periods of time are more easy (like the time of farmers, seasoning,
periodical activities etc.), while short periods of time (like minutes and
seconds) are more difficult.
Another historical dichotomy between physical time and psychological time is
the debate between Einstein and Bergson.
Finally, Heidegger approached the concept of time from a very different
point of view (Being and Time).
Below, you can see some helpful citations.
11. Bergson, H. Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of
Consciousness 1910. (Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience 1889)
Dover Publications 2001: ISBN 0-486-41767-0 – Bergson's doctoral
12. Biological Clocks. Gold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology,
45. Fraisse, P. (1964), The Psychology of Time. Trans. J. M. A., Leith.
(OXON.). Eyre & Spottiswoode, London.
47. Friedman, W. (1982), The Developmental Psychology of Time. Academic
Press, New York.
58. Grünbaum, A. (1971). The Meaning of Time. In E., Freeman, and W.,
Sellars. Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Time. Illinois.]
69. Hawking, Stephen, (1988), A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, London.
70. Heidegger, M. (1962), Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. Translated by
James S. Churchill, Bloomington (German original first published: Bonn
71. Heidegger, M. (1982), The Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Translated by
Albert Hofstadter, Bloomington 1982 (German original first published in:
Martin Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe, II. Abteilung: Vorlesungen 1923-1944, Bd.
24, Frankfurt a.M. 1975).
72. Heidegger, M. (1992a), Being and Time. Translated by John Macquarrie and
Edward Robinson, Oxford and Cambridge (first published 1962; German original
first published: Tübingen 1927).
73. Heidegger, M. (1992b), The Concept of Time. Translated by William
McNeill, Oxford and Cambridge (Mass.) (German original first published:
88. Kant, I. (1787/1933), Critique of Pure Reason, 2nd edit. N.K. Smith
(trans.), Macmillan, London (first published: London 1929; German original
first published: Riga 1781[A]; 1787[B]).
137. Piaget, J. (1969), The Child’s Conception of Time. Trans from French
(1927) Le Development de la Notion de Temps chez l’ Enfant, PUF, by
Pomerans, A.J. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
151. Prigogine, Ilya (1980), From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in
the Physical Sciences, San Francisco.
Assistant Professor of Science Education
School of Education
University of Ioannina
University Campus Dourouti 45110
From: Michelle Zoss
Sent: Monday, May 07, 2012 9:26 PM
To: eXtended Mind Culture Activity
Cc: Alisha White
Subject: [xmca] Researchers looking into non-linear constructions of time
Dear XMCA Colleagues,
I am working on a project with my colleague, Alisha White, in which we are
trying to understand the experiences of a teacher during her second year of
teaching in which she was diagnosed, treated, and recovered from cancer.
The issue at hand is this: Time, as we understand it based on her discussion
of her experiences, was not linear. She often spoke about time in a folded
or overlapping sense--she spoke about past, present, and future all at once
on a number of occasions. We speculate that her understanding of time was
not linear because she positioned her experiences as being present to her at
the moment of the interview, though the experiences had already happened in
the past or she was talking about what her experiences would be like in the
future. Trying to parse out whether she was talking about recent past events
or future events was something we encountered throughout the analysis of
several hours of formal and informal interviews that were conducted during
and just after the school year.
The question we would like to pose for consideration of the group is this:
Where and to whom do we look for discussions and analyses of time in
people's experiences as possibly non-linear?
This question is here, in part, because of work that I did with Peter
Smagorinsky in analyzing the work of a Native American student and his
composing practices in an English class (see: http://ijea.org/v8n10/). In
this study, the student named Peta described how a mapping activity to show
his life could not be linear because "No way in life is linear." This phrase
has been rattling around in my own brain since about 2005.
For the current study, we think that time was not linear for the teacher in
our study as well. For her, time was less a function of a clock marking a
linear progression of hours in a day; rather, time was more a function of
the relationships she had with students. Time seemed interminably slow when
her relationships with students were strained and awkward because she was
recovering from the illness, staying relatively still throughout her
classes, and not connecting with students on a personal level (there were
times when she could not remember students' names, let alone if they were
present in class). In contrast, time seemed more typical and even perhaps
fast when her relationships with students were closer to her expectations
for what she expected those relationships to look like. Put simply, time is
important in this study, but we are struggling with how to theorize how it
functioned, especially since it seems to be out of synch with the day-to-day
pacing of one lesson after another, day after day structure that existed in
the school. (We published an article last summer about how her teaching
practices shaped into the kind of teaching she wanted in this article:
I appreciate any thoughts you can share and directions you might be able to
**** **** **** ****
Dr. Michelle Zoss
Georgia State University
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