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RE: [xmca] Zebra Crossing

Robert (and Rod):
First of all, here's the Ernica article:

Secondly, here's the missing Sapir; if you have the Minick translation, it should go JUST at the top of p. 49, after "man reflects reality in a generalized way" and before "Virtually any example":
"In the sphere of instinctive consciousness, in which rules perception and passion, only infection and contagion is possible, not understanding and social contact in the true sense of the word. Edward Sapir has wonderfully explained this in his work on the psychology of speech. Elements of language,” he says must be connected to an entire group, to a defined class of our experience. “The world of our experiences must be enormously simplified and generalized before it is possible to make a symbolic inventory of all our experiences of things and relations; and this inventory is imperative before we can convey ideas. The elements of language, the symbols that ticket off experience, must therefore be associated with whole groups, delimited classes, of experience rather than with the single experiences themselves. Only so is communication possible, for the single experience lodges in an individual consciousness and is, strictly speaking, incommunicable.
 To be communicated it needs to be referred to a class which is tacitly accepted by the community as an identity.” For this reason Sapir considers the value of a word not as a symbol of an isolated perception, but as the symbol of a concept."
Thirdly, a thought on "performance" and "acting". It seems to me that the distinction is too coarse: it includes variation vs. repetition, self-directed repetition vs. other-directed repetition, deliberate self-directed repetition vs. inadvertant self-directed repetition. 
Everything we say about repetition can also be said about variation: there is self-directed variation vs. other-directed variation, deliberate self-directed variation vs. inadvertant self-directed repetition (i.e. error), etc.
An all of these distinctions apply not only to the actual actions themselves but also the imaginary entities we call actors. In order to teach English verbs to children in class we do an activity which is called "Listen and Do" ("Stand up", "sit down", "sit up"). But sometimes the actual actions become performative, e.g. "stand on the ceiling", "sit on a cloud". 
The actors, and not simply the actions, are also varied: "I am Andre Kim, the clothes designer. You are Jeong Jihyeon, supermodel. Stand! Sit! Oooooh! Lovely! (said rather campily to uproarious laughter)". 
All of these distinctions are important, and I am always very hesitant to assign pedagogical value to one over another. In an elementary school classroom, God has a blessing for everything, even for the Czar....
David Kellogg
Seoul National University of Education
--- On Tue, 11/16/10, Rod Parker-Rees <R.Parker-Rees@plymouth.ac.uk> wrote:

From: Rod Parker-Rees <R.Parker-Rees@plymouth.ac.uk>
Subject: RE: [xmca] Zebra Crossing
To: "eXtended Mind, Culture, Activity" <xmca@weber.ucsd.edu>
Date: Tuesday, November 16, 2010, 9:17 AM


Your comments on performance v. acting reminded me of my own take on the relationships between informing, transforming and performing. I see performance as a play between the form of a convention (a script, a musical score) and the interpretation of the performer - the communication which becomes possible when performer and audience share a common set of conventions (when the audience knows the play or the piece of music) is much greater and much more subtle than when there is no shared form to play with. For me it is a shame that the etymology of 'perform' is not from per-form (playing THROUGH a form) but things are not always neat!

All the best,


-----Original Message-----
From: xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu [mailto:xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu] On Behalf Of Robert Lake
Sent: 16 November 2010 14:30
To: eXtended Mind, Culture, Activity
Subject: Re: [xmca] Zebra Crossing

I am very much taken with your comments on imitation and
intra-revolu-turn-ation in the  Zeta Pi Delta because in my own schema it
connects with Newman and  Holtzman's view of imitation. _We take great pains
in our own psychological, cultural and political work......to distinguish
performing from its dialectical opposite, acting." (1993, p. 153) . They go
on to describe acting as "representational- it is copying, mimicking,
repeating without being ahead of one's self.....performing is the varied and
creative imitation of revolutionary activity, i.e. making history, making
meaning, to reinitiate a learning (cognitive, emotional, cultural) that
leads to development).

I am reminded of Bob Dylan's early "performances" of Woody Guthrie. He
sounded like him, dressed like him and he even imitated an Okie accent in
his early work as a singer/songwriter yet all the while he was developing
"ahead of himself". Or look at Vera John-Steiner's work in CHAT,as it
evolved from translating LSV, to her work in cognitive pluralism and
creative collaboration.

Where can I get a copy of Mauricio Ernica's article?

It is also amazing to me to see the ways that Maxine Greene's work in
aesthetic education  intersects with "Psychology of Art".

Where can we get the passage on Sapir in Chapter One ? Did you translate it?

Thanks again for the Truffles David!


On Tue, Nov 16, 2010 at 6:57 AM, David Kellogg <vaughndogblack@yahoo.com>wrote:

> I have just read a remarkable article on "Thinking and Speech" and the
> "Psychology of Art" by Mauricio Ernica in Brazil. He argues that there are
> three clear links between the two:
> a) The social formation of consciousness ("art as the social tool of
> emotion")
> b) The distinction between higher and lower emotions ("the aesthetic
> response")
> c) The mutual annihilation of content and form (catharsis)
> He points out that only a) is really EXPLICIT in T&S. But he argues that b)
> is implicit in the idea, most clearly expressed in the passage on Sapir in
> Chapter One which is unfortunately missing from all the English
> translations, on how the emotional, or affective volitional, side of word
> meaning is what really gets transformed when words develop into concepts.
> And c) is implicit in the idea that lexicogrammatical subjects, predicates,
> and even categories like number and gender are quite different from the
> psychological subjects, predicates, and other semantic categories of inner
> speech.
> I think all that is really true, and it came a shock to me. I've spent the
> last month or so rootling around in Psychology of Art for the truffles of
> Thinking and Speech. And here is Mauricio Ernica doing exactly the opposite,
> rummaging around in the later work and coming up with some real jewels of
> the earlier one.
> But one thing that is simply NOT in the Psychology of Art in any implicit
> form at all is the zone of proximal development. I think Andy is right to
> question whether the Zoped applies to fully developed humans in exactly the
> same way it does to children who are in the process of catastrophic,
> revolutionary ontogenetic developments every three years or four years or
> so.
> But for precisely that reason we have to question whether withdrawal of
> support is the crucial, essential, typical moment of development! Vygotsky
> says that IMITATION provides the actual content of the zone of proximal
> development--not imitation in a narrow sense, it is true, but intelligent
> imitation which includes the understanding of the purpose of the action and
> the possiblity of "intra-revolu-turning". It's very hard to see how you can
> "imitate" a lack of support or intra-revolu-turn-ate it.
> Yet this is basically the "scaffolding" interpretation of the ZPD put
> forward by Bruner (in, among other places, his preface to Thinking and
> Speech). Sure enough, it is an interpretation which CAN apply to adults in
> almost exactly the same way that it does to children, because it does not
> distinguish between microgenetic teaching-and-learning and ontogenetic
> development.
> In the nineteenth century, the key problem which vexed the first ecologists
> (Haeckl) anthropologists (Levy-Bruhl) and psychologists (Hall) was whether
> ontogeny recapitulates or somehow retraces phylogeny. I think this
> semi-obsession (definitively rejected by Vygotsky in the very first chapter
> of the History of the Development of the Higher Mental Functions) was partly
> the result of the discovery of evolutionary "stages" in embryological
> development (e.g. a "plantlike" stage, a "fish" stage, a "rodent"stage, and
> a simian one). The eighth century Tibetans, who were quite familiar with the
> stages of embryological devleopment because of their high rate of death in
> child birth and their custom of dismembering corpses to feed them to birds
> of prey, had already rejected the parallels as being striking but ultimately
> overstated.
> In the twentieth century, the semi-obsession has been whether or not
> microgenesis recapitulates the sociogenesis of knowledge; that is, whether
> children have to recreate knowledge through "discovery learning" or "project
> work" that mimicks the way in which the original discoverers were thinking.
> The verdict from Bruner (and also from Bereiter, and many many others) is
> YES; the ontogenesis of knowledge is simply a fast-forward replay of its
> sociogenesis. But I think there too we have to say that the parallels
> are seductive but ultimately grossly overstated, and ultimately founded on a
> lack of faith in the power of language to communicate.
> Besides, if microgenesis is just the recapitulation of sociogenesis, then
> what is ontogenesis?
> David Kellogg
> Seoul National University of Education
> PS: I think we should refer to the Zoped as a Zebra Raising, or maybe just
> a Zebra Crossing. But what we really need is a new name for the functional
> method of dual stimulation. The Fumedvastym? Fume Distillation?
> dk
> --- On Tue, 11/16/10, Rod Parker-Rees <R.Parker-Rees@plymouth.ac.uk>
> wrote:
> From: Rod Parker-Rees <R.Parker-Rees@plymouth.ac.uk>
> Subject: RE: [xmca] zpd zbr zedpd and zoped
> To: "ablunden@mira.net" <ablunden@mira.net>, "eXtended Mind, Culture,
> Activity" <xmca@weber.ucsd.edu>
> Date: Tuesday, November 16, 2010, 1:43 AM
> But Mike's ironic point also highlights the fact that our experience before
> birth (and immediately after in most parts of the world and for most of
> history) has been an undifferentiated 'we' (the Ur we or "Primordial-We").
> While the infant may have no independent experience of being treated as an
> independent person the mother has and this is available to the 'we' one too.
> All the best,
> Rod
> -----Original Message-----
> From: xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu [mailto:xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu] On
> Behalf Of Andy Blunden
> Sent: 16 November 2010 00:01
> To: eXtended Mind, Culture, Activity
> Subject: Re: [xmca] zpd zbr zedpd and zoped
> Ah! Apologies. I hadn't noticed that "Mike's ironic point" was off line.
> The irony was "Why not just withhold 'support' from birth, Andy?"
> Andy
> Andy Blunden wrote:
> > Before you can "perform who you are not yet," i.e., an independent
> > person, others have to treat you as an independent person. I take
> > Mike's ironic point, that /prior to/ that one must have some
> > opportunity to know how an independent person acts, but so long as you
> > are treated as someone who need help ...
> >
> > Andy
> >
> > Helen Grimmett (Education) wrote:
> >> Interesting angle Andy! I suppose it depends on the view of learning
> >> and development you are taking. I came to the zpd via the work of
> >> Rogoff and Lave & Wenger so came to view learning as transformation
> >> of participation in cultural activities. Then I came to Lois
> >> Holzman's work and take the definition of development as the activity
> >> of creating who you are by performing who you are not yet. In my
> >> understanding of these views, learning and development is only
> >> possible with the support of others, by participating in the
> >> activities of (and with) others. I have never thought about the
> >> relevance of the withdrawal of support - I'll have to ponder on that
> >> for a while to see how (or if) it fits in my schema!
> >>
> >> Interested to hear what others think,
> >> Helen
> >>
> >> On 16 November 2010 01:47, Andy Blunden <ablunden@mira.net
> >> <mailto:ablunden@mira.net>> wrote:
> >>
> >>     Mike, for whatever reason, zoped has never been a concept which
> >>     figured very largely in my thinking.
> >>
> >>     Apart from my interest in understanding social change and
> >>     zeitgeist my practical interest in Vygotsky's ideas has been in
> >>     relation to practical activity with mature adults, mostly where
> >>     the learner is not so much a person, but a group of adults, such
> >>     as a union branch or suchlike. But I have also developed an
> >>     interest in disability support.
> >>
> >>     In both these cases, it has always seemed to me that it is the
> >>     withdrawal of support which facilitates development, not the
> >>     provision of support. Of course, the very act of withdrawal of
> >>     support is itself assisting the "learner" in making the
> >>     development. Withdrawing support is a variety of support.
> >>
> >>     Does this fit into the general schema of theorising with zoped?
> >>
> >>     Andy
> >>
> >>
> >>     mike cole wrote:
> >>
> >>         Armando.
> >>         It seems to me that people can use any term they like in
> >>         seeking to index
> >>         the processes they believe
> >>         to be indicated by Vygotsky. Proximal in English refers to
> >>         both time and
> >>         space. In Spanish also, I believe as in:
> >>         Hasta la semaina *proxima.*
> >>
> >>         I was simply providing an explanation for my coinage.
> >>
> >>         mike
> >>         On Sat, Nov 13, 2010 at 4:52 AM, Armando Perez Yera
> >>         <armandop@uclv.edu.cu <mailto:armandop@uclv.edu.cu>>wrote:
> >>
> >>
> >>             Mike:
> >>             Why we do not work ZPD as zone of potencial development.
> >>             ZPD as zone of
> >>             proximal development taste as space dimension, Potencial
> >>             development taste
> >>             as time. Also Zone of colective potencial development
> >>             taste as SSD (Social
> >>             situation of development) And nbot anly as cognitive
> >>             proce3ss but as process
> >>             of development of pertsonality.
> >>             Only some ideas.
> >>             Armando
> >>
> >>             ________________________________________
> >>             From: xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu
> >>             <mailto:xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu>
> >>             [xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu
> >>             <mailto:xmca-bounces@weber.ucsd.edu>] On Behalf
> >>             Of mike cole [lchcmike@gmail.com
> >> <mailto:lchcmike@gmail.com>]
> >>             Sent: Friday, November 12, 2010 8:23 PM
> >>             To: eXtended Mind, Culture,Activity
> >>             Subject: [xmca] zpd zbr zedpd and zoped
> >>
> >>             I am answering David's question about "why zoped." I did
> >>             not include it in
> >>             my talk because I am uncertain of the audience's national
> >>             backgrounds and was assuming "mixed but mostly Russian
> >>             speakers". The talk
> >>             was supposed to be about 20 minutes long and I was
> >>             uncertain of the time. And I was also mindful of the fact
> >>             that on Tuesday
> >>             following its showing at the Vygotsky readings, I will be
> >>             discussing the
> >>             issues raised, and whatever people feel like talk about
> >>             via skype,
> >>             sooooooo.
> >>
> >>             As many know, when i organize obrazovanie, I like to mix
> >>             serious stuff with
> >>             play. Also, I have a long term interest in the the
> >>             enculturation
> >>             practices and processes of peoples for whom literacy has
> >>             not been a central
> >>             part of enculturation until, perhaps, recent times. And, I
> >>             enjoy
> >>             participating in the forms of activity that emerge when
> >>             zopeds are created
> >>             as a part of our research and educational practices.
> >>
> >>             With that context (add or subtract to taste) the notion of
> >>             a zoped came
> >>             from
> >>             two sources. First of all, it IS easier to say! :-)
> >>             Secondly, it involves forms of pedagogy -- arranging for
> >>             the young to
> >>             acquire valued skills, knowledge, belief, behaviors, etc --
> >>             Third, when it works, it seems like "something happened,"
> >>             a qualitative
> >>             field that sometimes can be like flow, sometimes can be
> >>             triggered by timely juxtapositions, montage-like. And it
> >>             seems to lead to a
> >>             more inclusive, more integrated way of relating to the
> >>             world at least
> >>             in that setting. Whatever this "something" is, it has a
> >>             magical quality to
> >>             it.
> >>
> >>             In Liberia when and where I pretended to work once upon a
> >>             time the most
> >>             respected, revered, and feared members of the community were
> >>             shamen, a concept referred to in Liberia at the time
> >>             (across language
> >>             groups, so far as I could tell) as a Zo, what popular
> >>             culture refers to
> >>             as "witch doctors." They were THE teachers. But they
> >>             worked through magic.
> >>
> >>             That about sums up my idea of the zone of proximal
> >>             development. It requires
> >>             sage pedagogy and a touch of magic. When those are combined,
> >>             they, of course, constitute a zo-ped.
> >>
> >>             I personally recommend spending time in such third spaces.
> >>             :-))
> >>             mike
> >>             __________________________________________
> >>             _____
> >>             xmca mailing list
> >>             xmca@weber.ucsd.edu <mailto:xmca@weber.ucsd.edu>
> >>             http://dss.ucsd.edu/mailman/listinfo/xmca
> >>
> >>             Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas.
> >>             http://www.uclv.edu.cu
> >>
> >>             Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas.
> >>             http://www.uclv.edu.cu
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>         __________________________________________
> >>         _____
> >>         xmca mailing list
> >>         xmca@weber.ucsd.edu <mailto:xmca@weber.ucsd.edu>
> >>         http://dss.ucsd.edu/mailman/listinfo/xmca
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>
> >>     --
> >> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> >>     *Andy Blunden*
> >>     Home Page: http://home.mira.net/~andy/<http://home.mira.net/%7Eandy/>
> >> <http://home.mira.net/%7Eandy/>
> >>     Videos: http://vimeo.com/user3478333/videos
> >>     Book: http://www.brill.nl/default.aspx?partid=227&pid=34857
> >>     <http://www.brill.nl/default.aspx?partid=227&pid=34857>
> >>     MIA: http://www.marxists.org
> >>
> >>
> >>     __________________________________________
> >>     _____
> >>     xmca mailing list
> >>     xmca@weber.ucsd.edu <mailto:xmca@weber.ucsd.edu>
> >>     http://dss.ucsd.edu/mailman/listinfo/xmca
> >>
> >>
> >
> --
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> *Andy Blunden*
> Home Page: http://home.mira.net/~andy/ <http://home.mira.net/%7Eandy/>
> Videos: http://vimeo.com/user3478333/videos
> Book: http://www.brill.nl/default.aspx?partid=227&pid=34857
> MIA: http://www.marxists.org
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*Robert Lake  Ed.D.
*Assistant Professor
Social Foundations of Education
Dept. of Curriculum, Foundations, and Reading
Georgia Southern University
P. O. Box 8144
Phone: (912) 478-5125
Fax: (912) 478-5382
Statesboro, GA  30460

*Democracy must be born anew in every generation, and education is its
*-*John Dewey.
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